Last update: 20 November 2009 (added
live RTTY audio stream link)
What is RTTY?
Some history. During World War II, military services started wireless Radio Teletype (RTTY, sometimes pronounced as "ritty") communications, connecting and modifying existing TTY machines (that used wires) to receivers and transmitters. All this bulky and noisy military and commercial surplus equipment (keyboard terminals, teleprinters, punch tape perforators, etc) became the main equipment for the RTTY radio amateurs until microprocessors made their arrival in the 1970s. Noisy selector magnets used in mechanical decoders to detect the status of the loop current (mark and space), tape readers, perforators, loop power supplies, were all replaced by a small chip, that made all jobs better. Devices like HAL DS3100, consisting of an electronic keyboard, a monitor and the modulator-demodulator were not uncommon in a Ham shack and the easy-to-operate equipment made more amateurs active in RTTY operation. These days, (de-)modulation is typically done with freeware on a PC, using the PC's soundcard. Sometimes RTTY is incorrectly referred to as "telex", which is actually teleprinting exchange, i.e., an exchange-based switched network service, enabling communication between teleprinters.
RTTY punch-tape for "the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog back 1234567890 end test"
(click on punch tape for large image)
Mark and Space. An RTTY transmitter sends out a continuous carrier that shifts frequency back and forth between two distinct frequencies. There is no amplitude modulation, only a pure carrier similar to CW with the addition of a frequency shift. The lower RF frequency is known as the SPACE frequency and the upper RF frequency is known as the MARK frequency. The difference between the two is known as the SHIFT. For amateur radio, the SHIFT has been standardized at 170 Hz. This allows sharp 250-500 Hz audio filtering. It is customary to refer to the MARK frequency as the frequency you are operating on. For example, if you say you are transmitting on 14080.00 kHz, that means your MARK frequency is 14080.00 kHz and your SPACE frequency is 170 Hz lower, or 14079.83 kHz. Some stations use a shift of 200 Hz. Weather stations often use 50 or 75 baud, and a 450 Hz shift.
Mark and space signals in tuning indicators
of MMTTY software (spectrum, waterfall, and XY)
Waterfall display of MixW software with several RTTY signals
FSK and AFSK. FSK stands for Frequency Shift Keying and AFSK means
Audio Frequency Shift Keying. With FSK, the transmitter shifts its
carrier frequency back and forth between Mark and Space. With AFSK, the
transmitter sends separate audio tones for Mark and Space (basically via the
microphone input of an SSB transmitter). The station receiving the RTTY signal
cannot tell the difference. The difference is the way the transmitter generates
the RF signal. The recommended audio frequencies are 2125 Hz for the MARK audio
frequency and 2295 Hz for the SPACE audio frequency. Note that the SPACE audio
frequency is higher than the MARK audio frequency - just the opposite of the RF
frequency of the actual transmission. This happens because amateur radio RTTY
uses lower sideband (LSB) transmission. If you happen to forget and set your
transmitter to USB instead of LSB, two things will happen. Because your MARK and
SPACE are now reversed in your receiver, any RTTY signals you hear will not
print correctly. All you will see is random characters that make no sense at
all. The other thing is that transmissions will also be reversed. Modern RTTY
software has simple controls to reverse received signals. Note that USB is used
in some parts of the world, esp. in Europe.
Figures Shift and Letters Shift. RTTY uses the Baudot code, invented before radio even existed, and still widely used throughout the world. The Baudot code uses data bits to represent letters, numbers and punctuation, much like a computer does. Unlike a computer, which uses one byte (eight bits) for each character, the Baudot code uses only five bit, plus a start bit and stop bit. Using fewer bits is good because it speeds up transmission and reduces the chance of errors, but there is a complication. Five data bits can only represent 32 different characters. Since there are 26 letters in the latin alphabet plus ten numbers, plus some punctuation, 32 different characters is not enough, even if you only use capital letters, as does the Baudot code. Rather than using more bits, Mr. Baudot came up with an other solution. He reasoned that most of what would be sent would be letters rather than numbers or punctuation, so he assigned all the letters to the basic 32 characters. He then had six possible characters left over and he did a very clever thing with two of them. He made one of them a Figures Shift and another a Letters Shift. When sending one of the basic 32 characters, nothing special happens. But when a number or punctuation is to be sent, the Figures Shift character is sent first (it's a non-printing character). Whatever follows will still be one of the basic 32 characters (bit patterns), but the receiver will interpret it differently. For example the letter Q uses the same five data bits as the number 1, but when the receiver gets a Figures Shift first, it prints the next character as a 1, not a Q. This continues until a Letters Shift character is received, at which time the receiver goes back to "normal" printing. Characters may get corrupted due to interference from lightning, static, man-made noise, channel fading, etc., causing inadvertent letter-figure shifts.
Modes. As discussed in the above introduction, RTTY data transfer is subject
to distortion and interference. This has led to the expansion of RTTY with
Automatic Repeat reQuest
(ARQ) to guarantee delivery. One such basic mode is SITOR: Simplex Telex
Over Radio (used in marine communication). The ham radio equivalent of this
is AMTOR: Amateur Teletype Over Radio. The transmitting station
sends three characters then waits for a response from the receiving station (at
a different frequency). The receiving station sends a ACK ( send the next three
characters ) or a NAK ( repeat the last three characters ). This exchange of
ACKs and NAKs helps to ensures that only error-free text arrives at the
receiving station. PACTOR is a packet-like mode based on AMTOR but with slightly
longer packets and AX.25 protocol compatibility. This mode is much faster than
AMTOR. G-TOR is a 600 baud mode that uses Golay FEC (Foward Error Correction)
Listen here to live teletype news (60 wpm speed / 45 Bd; 170 Hz shift) from Sequim (pronounced "skwimm"), WA/USA- audio stream can be used with your RTTY decoder software.
Click here for "Getting Started in Digital Communications - RTTY ", by B. Henry (K9GWT), QST, May 1992, pp. 41-47, © 1992 ARRL.
Click here for "Getting Started on RTTY (with MMTTY)", by Donald Hill (AA5AU)
Click here for "An introduction to amateur radio teletype" (basics), by Irvin M. Hoff (W6FFC)
Currently I am using excellent freeware RTTY-software (send/receive) for Windows®, developed by Makoto Mori, JE3HHT. MMTTY supports all of today's most popular SSTV modes, uses the PC's sound card. Click on the button to go to the download page.
Click here to hear what an RTTY signal (USB, amateur standard 45.45 baud, 170 Hz shift) sounds like (can be used to try out the software).
RTTY activity can be found on these
amateur radio frequencies:
3580-3620 kHz (3520-3525 in Japan)
3590 kHz - RTTY DX
7040 kHz - RTTY DX
7080-7100 kHz - in the USA
14070-14099 kHz (avoid transmitting on beacon freq 14100 kHz)
It is easy to remember the ham radio band plans for RTTY: most activity will be found between 80 and 100 kHz up from the bottom edge of the band, except for 80 meters, which goes an additional 40 or 50 kHz higher, and 160 meters. 160 meter RTTY activity is rare, but when found, it is usually between 1800 and 1820. Avoid the CW DX window between 1830 - 1840. At present, there is not much activity on the WARC bands, although 30 meters can be active at times. RTTY allocations for 40 meters vary greatly all over the world. In the US, RTTY is permitted between 7000 and 7150, although most US activity is between 7080 and 7100. DX activity is often found between 7020 and 7040.
|75 baud RTTY: 10536 kHz USB|
|Frequency list by RTTY.COM (Ham radio and non-Ham, incl. mode/shift)|
|AA5AU RTTY page (excellent; includes extensive setup etc of MMTTY)|
©2005-2009 F. Dörenberg N4SPP