[Siemens-Halske - company]     [Siemens-Halske - components]     [SIRUTOR diodes]     [HOGES]     [JAHRE]    [Jaroslaw, Turbax, Harex]

 

[DRALOWID]    [NSF]    [KABI]     [OSRAM]      [MENDE]     [Construction]

 

©2008-2010 F. Dörenberg. All rights reserved worldwide. No part of this publication may be captured, reproduced, stored, transferred, or translated, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the author.

 

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The prime manufacturer of the Hellschreiber was Siemens-Halske. Not surprisingly, most of the components are also from Siemens-Halske and carry the entwined S-H logo. But there are also components from other manufacturer's. The sections below provide a description of the components and their manufacturers. The RV12P4000 vacuum tube of the Feld-Hellschreiber is discussed extensively on a dedicated page. The electronics box of the Feld-Hell was also manufactured by the Mende company, and some motor-generators also carry the Mende logo.

Logos of the companies involved with the design and manufacturing of the Feld Hell

 

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SIEMENS-HALSKE


1847
company letterhead

As stated above, Rudolf Hell sold the basic Hellschreiber rights to the Siemens-Halske (S-H). The "Telegraphen Bau-Anstalt von Siemens & Halske ("The Telegraph Construction Company of Siemens & Halske") was founded in 1847 in Berlin. A nice overview of the - very interesting - corporate history can be found in ref. 1, 80, 81.

 

The Feldfernschreiber was manufactured at the Siemens-Halske "Fernmeldewerk" (Telecommunications Plant), which was one of the factories at the Wernerwerk complex in Berlin-Siemensstadt. Operations at this factory started on 1 April 1905. At one point, some 14.000 people worked in the Siemens complex! The "Fernmeldewerk" was also known as "Werk für Fernmeldetechnik", "Werk für die Fernmeldegerätefertigung", "Wernerwerk F", "WWF", "Werk F Funktechnik", and "Gebäudegruppe 1".

                   

The name "Wernerwerk" (initially "Werner-Werk"), refers to the founder of the Siemens company: Werner von Siemens (1816-1892), ref. 82. For a while, after 1928, all S-H sites (domestic and overseas) had a Wernerwerk-designator, later replaced by a "Gebäudegruppe" (building-group) number. By 1970 there were over one hundred Wernerwerke worldwide. The "Fernmeldewerk" made it through WWII relatively unscathed, which cannot be said for other parts of the S-H Siemensstadt facilities. Note that Siemens (as was Brown Boveri) had no close ties with US companies. Their production sites where the specific target of Allied bombing raids. The A.E.G., Telefunken, and C. Lorenz companies did have such affiliations, notably with International General Electric (IGE) and International Telegraph & Telephone (ITT). Their facilities were not bombed, other than accidentally. Ref. 36.


"Die Siemensstadt um 1930" (Siemensstadt, ca. 1930)
 (oil painting by Anton Scheuritzel (1874-1954), view in northerly direction; the painting is displayed in the Mosaikhalle (Mosaic Hall) of Siemens headquarters at the Rohrdamm, Berlin). Source: ref. 9.
© Sammlung Siemens Berlin

The "Fernmeldewerk" was located in the area outlined in yellow in the picture above. It is bounded by Nonnendamm (to the north), Reisstraße (west; Johann Philipp Reis invented the telephone (and gave it that name, ref, 72, 96) in 1861, Bell patented an improved version in 1876, ref. 10), Wernerwerkdamm (south), and Ohmstraße (east). It was torn down in 1981/1982.

 
Early 1900s postcard of the "Fernmeldewerk"
(factory building along the Reisstraße, looking northeast towards Nonnendamm)

Early 1900s postcard of the "Fernmeldewerk-F & -W"


The "Fernmeldewerk" seen from Wernerwerkdamm -1952.
Source: ref. 10.

 
Detail of the "Die Siemensstadt um 1930"painting
(the "Fernmeldewerk" building with the tower that is shown in the postcard above, is at the far right, half way up)

"Siemensstadt" ("Siemens Town") was the new name given to the Nonnenwiese area in Berlin in 1914. Siemens-Halske settled there around 1900, starting with its Kabelwerk Westend factory. This area of roughly 2½ x 2½ km (1½ x 1½ mi), is located on the west side of downtown Berlin, just north of the Spree river, between Berlin-Spandau, Berlin-Charlottenburg, and Berlin-Tegel (airport). It is part of the Spandau-burough. More info about Siemensstadt can be found here (in German). A listing of Siemens-Halske factories in the south and the west of Germany at the end of WWII is given in ref. 96.


©2008 Michelin


Company logos; left-to-right: 1899, 1925, 1928, 1936, 1973
Source: Siemens Corporate Archives, Munich

 

Simplified historical structure of the Siemens company (click here for full size)
 

The Feldfernschreiber carries the name of the Siemens-Halske company on partnumber labels on the rear of the motor and of the keyboard unit. The "entwined S-H" monogram of the company logo (ref. 46) appears on the face of the voltmeter, on various capacitors and resistors, and on the sockets of the four tubes.

 

Siemens-Halske "Teerie" (tar-filled housing) capacitor from the base of the Feld-Hell motor-generator
 

The 12-pin connector on the front of the Hell Feldfernschreiber has a bakelite insert. Some of these inserts have the logo of Siemens-Apparate- und Maschinenbau (SAM). The aluminum cast shell of the matching 12-pin plug also has the SAM logo. Some of the bakelite inserts have the logo of Siemens' Luftfahrtgerätewerk Hakenfelde GmbH (LGW).

 

                       

Logo of Siemens-Apparate- und Maschinenbau (SAM9 on the bakelite insert of a 12-pin connector and shell of a mating male plug
 

        

Logo of Luftfahrtgerätewerk Hakenfelde GmbH (LGW) on the bakelite insert of a 12-pin male plug and shell of female counterpart
 

S-H logo on the face of the voltmeter of the amplifier box of the Feld-Hell
 


1942 Siemens-Halske advertising - electronic components for hobbyists.
(source: Schneiders Bauhefte Nr. 6, p. 23)

 

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SIRUTOR

The signal detector of the Feld-Hellschreiber is a full-wave diode rectifier that comprises two "Kupferoxydul-Gleichrichter": cuprous-oxide-on-copper diodes. Note that in those days, the word "diode" was reserved for vacuum tubes with two electrodes. Solid-state diodes were referred to as "dry" rectifiers ("Trockengleichrichter"). These semiconductor diodes often came with one or two pairs in the same package (ref. 5, 11, 12).


A two-diode Kupferoxydul-Gleichrichter                         The two Sirutor diodes of my Hellschreiber
(a.k.a. "Maikäfer", maybug beetle, for its buggy look)                                                                                               

 

This type of metal-oxide diode was invented around 1922 by Lars Grondahl and Paul Geiger (ref. 76; their 1925 U.S. Patent (ref. 77) only lists the name of the prior). They are made by heavily oxidizing copper plate on one side, in order to form black cupric oxide (CuO, called tenorite in mineral form). Subsequent heat treatment (annealing) causes the formation of red cuprous oxide (Cu2O, called cuprite in mineral form) between the copper and the cupric oxide. The latter is etched off, leaving a semiconductor PN-junction of Cu2O and Cu. Ref. 30-47 provide an exhaustive scientific treatise of these early semiconductors. These diodes are quite suitable for detectors: they have a forward voltage (a.k.a. "knee" or "turn-on" voltage) of only 0.2-0.3 V, and a relatively linear forward I-V curve. This is similar to germanium diodes (as compared to 0.5-0.7 V for silicon diodes). Reverse voltage is only 6 volts. With larger dimensions, they were also used for rectifiers in radio power supplies (ref. 28, 34), and high power applications. Due to their inherent capacitance, they are not effective above several 100 kHz.

 

I-V characteristics of various diode types

 

Note that asymmetrical conductivity was already discovered in lead-sulfide some 50 years earlier, by Ferdinand Braun (1874). From the early 1900s on, this was used for "cat's whisker" signal detectors in crystal set radios. Braun also invented the cathode ray tube. Walter Schottky (1886-1976) was head of the Siemens-Halske semiconductor research labs around 1930 (ref. 48, 49). He was the founder of barrier-layer semiconductor theory (ca. 1938), discoverer of shot noise and the Schottky effect, and inventor of the screen-grid tube, the tetrode, and the superheterodyne receiver (Schottky filed the associated patent mid-1918, some six months before Edwin Armstrong in the USA, who developed it independently and to whom it is usually - but incorrectly - attributed. Ref. 14).

 

The diodes in the Hellschreiber are marked "Sirutor". This is short for "Siemens Rundfunk Detektor" ("broadcast detector"). It is a so-called  "Kupferoxydul-Pillengleichrichter". Siemens-Halske started to produce these small-signal detector diodes around 1930. The 1940 list-price was 3.75 Reichsmark a piece (ref. 11); this is roughly equivalent to an estimated 1.95 euros (±2.80 US$ in 2009). This diode comprises a small plastic tube in which a number of cuprous-oxide-on-copper "pills" are stacked (2 mm diameter). Diodes were made with 1 to 10 or even 15 pills. The standard diode has 5 pills, and the tube is marked with a "5" (or "5b") accordingly. The Hellschreiber has two of these. Small copper disks are added to both ends of the stack as fillers, as necessary. One end of the stack has a contact-spring, the other a small filler rod. The ends of the plastic tube are threaded; end-caps are fitted to these ends. The Sirutors in my Feld-Hell have a conical cap on both ends; others have one conical and one straight cap (see below). There appears to be a small dab of soft metal (lead?) on each pill, probably to ensure proper contact with the next pill.


The parts of a Sirutor "5" diode


Cross-section of a Sirutor

(source: ref. 29)

 

Sirutors were sold individually packaged

(color coding white, orange, blue, ... depending on the number of pills)

 

Each diode-pill has a relatively small reverse-voltage: about 6 volt. So a number 5 Sirutor has a reverse-voltage of about 30 volt (at 0.1 mA). See ref 7, 11, 12, 78. This is why the Hellschreiber diodes are marked "30V" in some original schematics. The forward voltage of the Sirutor 5 is about 5x0.25=1.2 volt.

 

The Sirutors themselves are marked with a "+" at one end. Note that well into the 1950s (DIN standard 50700), the polarity of the symbol for semiconductor diodes was not fully standardized. As the 1931 warning below shows, this caused confusion (and probably lots of blown components). The polarity issue has to do with the fact that the physical direction of an electron flow ( = negative) is opposite to the that of the current flow (= positive). The anode of a polarized device is always the electrode through which electrons flow into that device - independent of the type of device and its operating mode. This means, by the way, that the anode of a (re)charging battery is opposite to that of a discharging battery. Note that the same polarity issue happened with the battery symbol, where the long bar used to be the negative terminal (e.g., corresponding to the long terminal on the classical flat 4.5 volt batteries).

 

       

        Funkschau, Vol. 4, Nr. 2,                             Polarity marking in Telefunken 1948
            11 January 1931, p. 12                                 Presse-Hell-Empfänger schematic

 

Siemens-Halske also screened Sirutor diodes to higher voltages. They are marked with a yellow band ("Kennstreifen"). They are not used in the Feld-Hell. As Sirutors are more robust, much lighter and smaller than tube diodes, they were also used in the three ring-modulators of the guidance and control control computer of the A4 ("Aggregat 4") missile. (ref. 15, 26, 83). For propaganda purposes, the A4 was dubbed "Vergeltungswaffe 2" ("revenge weapon" V2) upon its deployment in the fall of 1944.

 

In the 1930s, other manufacturers also made copper-oxide rectifier diodes. For instance, Westinghouse made "metal rectifiers": the "Westector". Westectors had either one copper-oxide pill (WX1), four (W4, WS4), or six pills (W6, WS6), providing a reverse voltage of 1x6=6, 4x6=24 and 6x6=36 volt respectively, with a maximum current of 0.25 mA. The W-series was suitable for frequencies up to about 200 kHz, the WX-series up to ca. 1.5 MHz. Their construction was basically the same as that of the Sirutor. The WM-type Westectors (WM24, WM26) are full-wave rectifiers, combining two half-wave rectifiers (WS4, WS6). In 1933, UK prices for Westectors were 7 shilling and 6 pence for WS, and 10 shilling for a WM.

 

Westector type WX6

(size: 40x9 mm, almost 50% larger than a Sirutor; a WX1 is only 15 mm long)

 

Westector type WM

(source: August 1933 advertising in "Radio REF" magazine)

 

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The motor-generator includes filter inductors, similar to the "Sirufer" ("Siemens Rundfunk Eisen") powdered iron (Fe) core coils illustrated below.  Ref. 55, 79.

"Sirufer-Rollenkerne"

(source: figure 19 in ref. 55)

 

 

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HOGES

 

Several capacitors and resistors are marked HOGES, which means that they came from the Hochohm Gesellschaft mbH of Berlin-Schöneberg and Berlin-Adlershof. HOGES manufactured tubes and passive components, especially resistors (as the name suggests). They also marketed components from other manufacturers under their own label. The HOGES resistors are typically dark green, as opposed to S-H grey. There are also some HOGES capacitors in the motor-generator. E.g., the yellow filter capacitors C70 and C71 (in the schematic further below; 200 pF, 10%, 1500 V). Hochohm's earliest patent dates back to 1927 (Reichspatentamt, Nr. 565176).


 A HOGES filter capacitor from the motor-generator


HOGES resistor catalog (ref. 17) and capacitor catalog (ref. 18) from the 1930s

The capacitors are marked with both operating voltage ("Betriebsspannung", Bsp. or Betr.-Sp.) and test voltage ("Prüfspannung", Psp.) or max/peak voltage ("Spitzenspannung", Spitz.-Spg). Typically 250/750, 500/1500, or 750/2250 volt. Some electrolytics are 25/30. Typical operating temperature limit is 70 ºC (160 ºF). Resistors have 5% tolerance.

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JAHRE

The electrolytic capacitors in the motor-generator are made by Richard Jahre GmbH of Berlin (hence: JAHRELYT). These capacitors are actually packaged inside a small cardboard tube that measures 40½ mm x 12 mm (length x diameter; ± 1⅝" x ½").


 JAHRE electrolytic capacitor from the Feld-Hellschreiber

 
 JAHRE
catalog from 1938 (ref. 19) and Jahre advert


JAHRE advert from Telegraphen-, Fernsprech- und Funk-Technik, Nr. 8, 1936, p. 235


JAHRE advert from Schneiders Bauhefte Nr. 6 of 1942

Richard Jahre GmbH Kondensatoren & Induktivitäten (in Wilhelmshafen), is still a capacitor manufacturer today, still specialized in mica ("Glimmer") capacitors. Mr. Jahre founded the "Apparate- und Modellbau" company in November of 1919, at the age of 24, originally to develop and manufacture demonstration devices for university physics courses. During the early 1920s, as radio became increasingly popular, he recognized the market for series production of components (e.g., capacitors, inductors, detectors) and test equipment (decades, precision reference components, wavelength meters, etc.); the name changes to "Radioapparatebau". Jahre's first patent dates back to 1931 (Reichspatentamt , nr. 587098). In 1965, Jahre sells the company to the Roederstein group (ROE). In 1977, the company moves to Wilhelmshafen. Richard Jahre died in 1994 at the age of 99. Ernst Roederstein Spezialfabrik für Kondensatoren GmbH started out in Berlin, and moved to Landshut (Lower Bavaria) in 1958. In 1993, Roederstein was acquired by Vishay (a leading global manufacturer of discrete semiconductor components and passive components).

 

 

Listings in the "Kondensatoren" (capacitors) section of the Berlin "yellow pages"
Berliner Adreßbuch 1929 (Part II, p. 418) and 1943 (Part II, p. 371)        
(
source: Berliner Adressbücher 1799-1943, telephone & address books of Berlin)

 

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JAROSLAW, TURBAX, HAREX

 

As an interesting side note: in 1979, the Jahre company acquired the mica capacitor manufacturer Scherb & Schwer Glimmertechnik (mica) of Berlin-Weißensee. In the early 1940s, this company was called "Scherb & Schwer Elektro- Glimmer- und Preßwerke". In 1941, Scherb & Schwer had acquired Jaroslaw's Erste Glimmer-Waren Fabrik (Jaroslaw's First Mica Products Factory), also of Berlin-Weißensee. The Jaroslaw's company dates back at least to 1923, based on its advertising for mica, Mikanit, and Turbonit, in the "Jahrbuch der Drahtlosen Telegraphie und Telephonie" of that year.

 

 
Listings in the "Kondensatoren" (capacitors) section of the Berlin "yellow pages"
Berliner Adreßbuch 1940 (Part II, p. 300) and 1941 (Part II, p. 309)
(
source: Berliner Adressbücher 1799-1943, telephone & address books of Berlin)

 

In the 1930s, Jaroslaw's had been one of first manufacturers of "Hartgewebe": a cotton-reinforced laminate of a particular thermosetting polymeric resin (phenol-formaldehyde, PF). Ref. 53, 54. Note that, whereas Hartgewebe was (and is) usually cotton-based, there were also linen-based versions. Jaroslaw's used the trade name "Turbax" for their PF-laminate. Jaroslaw's was confiscated by the German government in 1940, for ethnic reasons.

(source: cover of ref. 85)

 

Phenol is a by-product of coking coal, and formaldehyde is obtained by converting aldehyde, e.g., by oxidizing vaporized methyl alcohol (methanol - highly toxic, unlike ethanol). The latter is also known as "wood alcohol", as it is a by-product of the distillation of wood. Both coal and wood were in plenty supply. PF-related patents actually date back to the late 1890s, though it was Adolf Baeyer (later changed to von Baeyer; not to be confused with Friedrich Bayer, founder of chemical giant Bayer) who had already discovered in 1872 that formaldehyde and phenols can be processed into a hard resin. Baeyer did not commercialize his discovery.

 

This laminate material is still used today for small gears, e.g., in the automobile and motorcycle industry. For good reason: it is very durable, lightweight, quiet-running, can be machined like wood and metal, and can also be press-molded ("Schichtpreßstoff"). The Hell Feldfernschreiber contains a small block of Hartgewebe in the centrifugal speed regulator, and several gears are made of it, as are the tracks at the bottom of the unit.  

PF reinforced with sawdust filler, is usually referred to as "bakelite". Ref. 86, 87. It was invented in 1907 by the Belgian Leo Baekeland (1863-1944), who emigrated to the USA at the age of 26. He filed patents in the USA in 1909; they expired in 1927. Hans Lebach of Knoll & Co. filed patents in Germany for a virtually identical material ("Resit"), several months before Baekeland did so in the USA - though with a different hardening process. Extensive patent litigation ensued (ref. 22). In the end (May 1910), Baekeland, Knoll & Co., and  Rütgerswerke (the exclusive bakelite-licensee for continental Europe since 1909) founded the Bakelite GmbH company near Berlin.

 

(source: cover page of ref. 86)

Note that bakelite is not a cheap or inferior material! The customized molds are very expensive, as are the molding presses. However, bakelite was competitive, as durable items with complex shapes could be mass produced, accurately (ref. 95), without post-molding machining such as drilling, grinding, sanding, turning, or polishing (though a shiny surface was not required for military products). Also, the wood dust filler is not  a cheap ingredient at all, given the required fineness of the powder. Towards the end of the war, good wood dust became scarce, and the quality of the bakelite products declined.

 

There are no manufacturer's markings on the Hartgewebe parts of the Feld-Hellschreiber. However, the official 1941 manual (ref. 4, 5) mentions "turbax". As Jaroslaw was located in Berlin (like Siemens-Halske) and manufactured gears, it is probable that Jaroslaw supplied the turbax parts.

 

 

 Jaroslaw brochure from 1938 (ref. 20) and a 1935 product overview (ref. 21)

 

An equivalent of Turbax is HAREX (typically in sheet form), a trademark of Hermann Römmler GmbH. Römmler was founded in 1867 in Spremberg, some 80 km (50 mi) to the southeast of Berlin. In 1921 they obtained license-free access to the bakelite patents. Römmler had a background in the processing of textiles (e.g., cotton flocks for shellac gramophone records), which facilitated the step to cotton-reinforced PF. One of their molding materials (a "Hartpapier-Preßstoff", paper-reinforced laminate), had the trademark HARES (registered ca. 1908), derived from the phonetic German pronunciation of the company logo "HRS" (the initials HR of the company founder and S for Spremberg; ref. 23, 24). HARES has many applications, including entire doors of the 1935/36 F5 car by DKW (part of Auto Union). Ref. 59. The body of the 1939 DKW F8 was almost entirely made of molded phenolic laminate.

 

I have contacted the Römmler company early 2010, to find out of there is a similar phonetic explanation for "HAREX", but they had no info on this. In 1938, the Römmler became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Brown, Boveri & Cie (BBC). BBC was established in 1891 in Baden/Switzerland, as a major player in the field of large electrical motors, electrical power generation and distribution; it merged with the Swedish ASEA company in 1988 to form ABB. Based on the success of their Resopal Schichtpreßstoff (a laminate, dating back to the early 1930s), the Römmler company name was expanded to Resopal Werk H. Römmler GmbH in 1971. It is located in Groß-Umstadt.

 

 

Numerous other manufacturers produced similar Hartgewebe materials with registered brand names such as Novotext, Tenazit, Thesit, Taumalit, Esconit, Bernit, Resinol, Resitex, Tenatext, Trolitan, Trolitax, Tufnol, Biratex, Celeron, and Micarta.

 

Another well-known PF-laminate is "Hartpapier", i.e., a paper-reinforced laminate (a.k.a. synthetic resin bonded paper). The most well-known brand name is pertinax (not related to the 2nd century Roman emperor with that name). It was widely used for electronic circuit boards in the early days. Related brand names are Paxolin, Lamitex, and Vetronit. This material is yellow to dark brown, brittle, not mechanically resistant, and it is hard to bond copper to it. Before the introduction of PF-resin, pertinax was apparently made with bovine blood as a binder...

 

Later on, an other polymer replaced PF for many applications: poly-epoxide (a.k.a. "epoxy"); it was patented in Germany in 1939 by the giant chemical conglomerate Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG ("I.G. Farben" for short). I.G. Farben originally comprised other well-know companies such as Bayer, BASF, Hoechst, and AGFA.

 

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DRALOWID

 

Practically all resistors and capacitors have the Siemens-Halske (S-H) logo on it. Resistors are typically carbon type (only resistor W5 is wire-wound). No color coding is used: component values are printed on the component. However, in electronics box some Feld-Hell machines, we find resistors from an other manufacturer. The photo below shows a Dralowid-N resistor from a 1939 Feld-Hell electronics box made by Mende. In that box, resistors W45, W48, and W49 are made by Dralowid. These type -N resistors are wire-wound.

 

Dralowid-N resistor from a Feld-Hell

 

(source: ref. 58, ca.1938)

 

The history of Dralowid goes back to 1926, when the company Steatit-Magnesia A.G. (STEMAG, Berlin-Nürnberg) decided to manufacture resistors that were not wire-wound, but carbon resistors ("Kohleschichtwiderstände", carbon deposited on porcelain). That is, these were "wire-less" resistors: drahtlose Widerstände. Hence the product and company name Dralowid. Obviously they still had leads (connecting wires). Originally a pilot plant was set up in Berlin-Tempelhof, but the commercial production started in the Dralowid-Werk in Berlin-Pankow. Later on, they also made wire-resistors, wound on porcelain tubes.

 

The STEMAG company was created in 1921, as a combination of four companies: Steatit A.G., Vereinigte Magnesia-Co. & Ernst Hildebrand A.G. (specializing in industrial insulators and ceramic parts for gas lights), Jean Stadelmann & Co. and J. von Schwarz A.G. (both manufacturers of spark-plug insulators). Their roots go back as far as the mid-1800s. In 1929, STEMAG merged with the Porzellanfabrik Teltow GmbH, a manufacturer of industrial porcelains and products made of melalith (a mix between porcelain and steatite, cf. ref. 57). Teltow's porcelain production was fully ramped down in 1931 and the kilns were torn down in 1934. Dralowid's manufacturing gradually transitioned to this factory in Berlin-Teltow during 1932-1935.

 

Dralowid advert from Funk-Technische Monatshefte (FTM) of 1942

 

Some other trademark "Dralo" products of STEMAG are "Draloperm" (HF iron powder cores, "Draloston" (gramophone records) and "Dralofon", all made by STEMAG's Dralowid subsidiary. Dralowid also manufactured electronic components such as mica capacitors ("Mikafarad"), electrolytic capacitors, "Potentiator" variable resistors, and "Kombinator" (small bakelite boxes with several capacitors and resistors), cf. ref. 58. Dralowid components were used by all major equipment manufacturers such as Siemens-Halske, AEG, Telefunken, Lorenz, Saba, Blaupunkt, and Mende. Dralowid also made movie (film) projectors.

 

                   

                                                                                                        Dralowid projector advert, ca. 1936

 

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NSF

 

Some of the Feld-Hellschreibers - in particular the ones with an electronics box made by the Mende Co. - contain capacitors that are marked "NSF". NSF was founded in 1897 as "Nürnberger Schraubenfabrik und Façondreherei Carl Göbel G.m.b.H." (factory for screws and custom turned parts). The founder left the company two years later, and his name was dropped from the company name. In 1920, the company expanded to Berlin, where it started to started to develop and produce radio parts in 1923, including "cats-whiskers" detectors and banana-plugs. The the radio parts activities are moved to a separate factory ("Werk II", "Elektrowerk") in Nürnberg in 1927. 

 

 

NSF advert ca.1930                                                                                    

 

During the mid-1930s, the company already began to support military activities. The UK subsidiary British NSF was founded in 1932 in Croydon/UK, and destroyed during a bombing raid in 1940. In 1938, the jewish owner of the company was forced to relinquish ownership for ethnic reasons. It was sold to the newly founded Nürnberger Schraubenfabrik GmbH. In September of 1940, the name was changed to "N.S.F. Nürnberger Schraubenfabrik und Elektrowerk G.m.b.H", to better reflect the company's activities. The Elektrowerk was acquired by AEG Telefunken in 1942. In 1960, the name changed once again, to "Nürnberger Schwachstrom-Bauelemente Fabrik G.m.b.H.", later a production site of "Telefunken Microelektronik GmbH".

 

As the name suggests, the company had its roots in Nürnberg (Nuremberg). The area around Nürnberg became a major center for military production. Well-known names are M.A.N. (diesel engines, U-boot engines, Panther tanks), Zünder- und Apparatebaugesellschaft (Zündapp; detonators and equipment), TEKADE (electronic components such as radio tubes, telecom equipment, cable & wire), Siemens-Schuckert, Nürnberger Aluminiumwerke (Nüral), and Diehl (ammunition, detonators, bombs). Well over a hundred additional companies also contributed.

 

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KABI

 

The wire-wound volume control potentiometer of the Feld-Hell was made by "Kabi": Karl Biermann, a small manufacturer of electro-mechanical components in Berlin-Johannisthal during the latter half of the 1920s, through WWII. It is not related to the "Fa. Karl Biermann" radio repair & sales shop, established in 1933 in Bünde (320 km west of Berlin) - still in existence today.

 

            
"Kabi" potentiometer of the Feld-Hell and "Kabi" advertising
(advert source: "Die Sendung - Das Rundfunkwesen", Vol. 8, Nr. 26 June 1931, p. 511; Nr. 32 / XII, 4 Dec. 1931)
 


Phonebook entries for Karl Biermann (top to bottom: 1925, 1926, 1932, 1939, 1943)
(
source: Berliner Adressbücher 1799-1943, telephone & address books of Berlin)

 

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OSRAM

 

The Feld-Hell has a 2 watt light bulb for its signal lamp (Ba9s bayonet-base). It was made by OSRAM. OSRAM is the contraction of Osmium-Wolfram. Wolfram is also know as tungsten, from the Swedish for "heavy stone". OSRAM is the alloy used for the helical filaments of incandescent light bulbs. An other alloy used for filaments at that time was Wotan: Wolfram-Tantalum. Early 1906, OSRAM was registered with the imperial patent office in Berlin as a trademark for "Elektrische Glüh- und Bogenlichtlampen von der Auer-Gesellschaft" (electrical incandescent & arc lights of the Auer Co.). The "Auer Gesellschaft" (Auer von Welsbach) was also referred to as the "Deutsche Gasglühlicht-Anstalt" (the German Gaslight Establishment). In 1919, the Auer company, Siemens-Halske, and AEG, founded the OSRAM G.m.b.H. & KG (Kommanditgesellschaft = limited partnership), to combine their light bulb manufacturing activities. They adopted OSRAM as their brand name. The first OSRAM logo (see below) is from the same year. In 1929, during the Great Depression, the International General Electric Company (subsidiary of GE USA), acquired an interest in OSRAM. During WWII, a number of production sites were moved from the Berlin area to the eastern part of Germany. Some remained in east-Berlin. After the war, the sites located in the Soviet occupied zone were dispossessed, and OSRAM lost its foreign subsidiaries and trademark rights. The OSRAM G.m.b.H. KG was converted to OSRAM G.m.b.H Berlin/München in 1956, with the same shareholders as the original KG. During 1976-1978 Siemens AG became sole shareholder. Ref. 25, 50.
 

First OSRAM logo (1929), one of my old light bulbs, and early OSRAM advertising
 

Blue "air raid" or "blackout" bulb - low power (typ. 8 watt) and instructions (click to enlarge)

 

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blue_line.GIF (897 bytes)

CONSTRUCTION

The electronics box ("Verstärker- und Anschlußsatz") of the Feld-Hellschreiber has a one-piece, die-cast chassis.  The chassis is made of “Elektron” metal - a magnesium alloy. Ref. 3. The chassis of the Feld-Hell’s bottom unit (gear-box, base below the keyboard) is also die-cast Elektron. Other parts of the machine (in particular the base and housing of the motor-generator) are basically made of aluminium (“Leichtmetall”). Ref. 2. There are no distinguishable manufacturer markings on the Feld-Hell chassis. However, given their history, the manufacturer probably was Mahle Werke GmbH. The Hell Schnellmorseschreiber is of the same vintage and has the same construction. Ref. 3.

 


Front panel of the electronics unit of the Feldfernschreiber

 

The rear of the box has a simple removable cover. Removing this cover exposes a two-row pertinax circuit card, with point-to-point wiring. Though single- and multi-layer printed-circuit technology dates back to the very early 1900s (ref. 84), it was not used until the 1960s. All components have a small round sticker on them, with a number that corresponds to the component number in the schematic. Very helpful during troubleshooting and repair! Also, all the solder lugs on the pertinax circuit card, the interconnect blocks, and the tube sockets, have a number printed on them or next to them; it corresponds to a numbered point in the schematic.

 

  Rear-view of the electronics box of the Feld-Hellschreiber - cover removed         
(the
components and solder lugs on the circuit card are numbered per the schematic)
 

The circuit card is in fact part of a larger assembly: it is attached to the top cover of the electronics box, as are the four tube sockets, an isolation transformer, the fuse holder, and the battery/power-supply toggle switch.

 

  The circuit card is suspended from the top cover, as are the tube sockets    


Top of the electronics unit - rear cover and circuit card assembly removed

Looking at the bottom of the electronics unit, top with circuit board removed

Rear view of the electronics unit, circuit board removed
 

The bare one-piece die-cast electronics box, all components removed

(in photo above, note the (upside down) marking "T typ 58 13M" on the lower inside of the front panel)

Elektronmetall (Elektron-metal) is an alloy that consists of ±90% magnesium and ±9% aluminium. The rest is manganese (for corrosion resistance), zinc, and silicon. Over the years, “elektron” has become a generic name for this type of alloy, with varying composition. It is about 30% lighter than aluminium, and 75% lighter than steel. Elektron was widely used in optical devices (microscopes, binoculars), for structural elements in airplanes and airships, motor cycle frames, engine pistons, compressor rotors, landing gears, and all sorts of equipment frames and housings. Cast Elektron and magnesium parts were also used in automobiles. E.g., Prof. Ferdinand “Ferry” Porsche included some 27,5 kg (≈60 lbs) in his Volkswagen "Käfer" (Beetle) design. Ref. 61.

 

Elektron was well-suited for "Druckguß" parts manufacturing: compression molding (UK: moulding), a.k.a. die-casting. The die-casting process consists of quickly (less than 5-100 msec) forcing molten metal under high pressure (400 – 4000 tons) into a re-usable steel mold called a “die”. The basic technology dates back to the mid-1800s, when it began to displace low-pressure "gravity-feed" casting. The original application was for machine production of printing type (letters). Die-castings are characterized by a good surface finish (very smooth, by casting standards) and dimensional accuracy. The dies can be designed to produce castings with very complex shapes. "Druckguß" is also referred to as "Preßguß" and "Fertigguß", and "Spritzguß". However, these days, the latter terminology is exclusively reserved for injection molding of plastic parts. Today, "Druckguß" is used for what used to be called "Spritzguß" during the middle of the last century.

 

In April of 1909, the company Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron (CFGE) registered the first patent for this magnesium alloy as a construction material. CFGE presented the alloy under the name Elektron at the first ILA (Internationale Luftfahrt-Ausstellung, International Air Transport Fair). This ILA took place in 1909 in Frankfurt/Main and lasted 100 days! Ref. 6. This is the world’s oldest commercial air show.

 

The Frankfurter AG für landwirtschaftlich chemische Fabrikate was founded in 1856 in the town of Griesheim (on the river Main, some 30 km (20 mi) southwest of Frankfurt/Main). An 1863 entry in the trade register lists this company as Chemische Fabrik Griesheim am Main (CFG). In 1892 CFG and partners founded the Chemische Fabrik Elektron AG (CFE), to exploit the technology of electrolysis of caustic soda. CFG and CFE merged in 1898 as Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron (CFGE). Ref. 68. Later on, factories were added in Mainthal, Küppersteg, Spandau, Rheinfelden, and Bitterfeld. The latter is vast center of chemical industry, 130 km southwest of Berlin, ref. 62. The location was chosen for its availability of cheap lignite (brown coal, used in electricity plants) and transportation infrastructure (railways, waterways). CFG became world-famous for electrolysis technologies, and inventions such as autogenous welding & cutting (1902), and PVC plastic (1912). One of its electrolysis by-products, hydrogen, was used to fill Zeppelin and Parseval dirigibles.

 

CFG produced magnesium by electrolysis of molten carnallite (a form of magnesium chloride). Other sources of magnesium are seawater, dolomite, and magnesite. Commercially viable production of magnesium was invented by the German chemist Robert Bunsen (yes, of the Bunsen burner, but also discoverer of the chemical elements caesium (cesium) and rubidium, co-inventor of the spectroscope (with Gustav Kirchoff, of the famous voltage & current laws), etc.) From the 1880s until the middle of World War I, Germany was basically the world’s only magnesium producer. Ref. 61. In 1938, it still accounted for over 2/3 of the world production (ref. 71). The local supplies of carnallite made the German magnesium production entirely independent of foreign raw material. Near the end of WWII, aluminium (and, hence, associated alloys) became a scare strategic material and much heavier zinc was used in many die-cast products. Ref. 66.

 

An other big name in magnesium alloy products, and connected to CFGE, is “Mahle”. Ca. 1919, Hellmuth Hirth founded Versuchsbau Hellmuth Hirth (VHH) in Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt. In 1920, he hires Hermann Mahle. Two years later, brother Ernst Mahle joins the company. That same year, Hirth starts the Elektronmetall Cannstatt GmbH (EC). In the company’s early years, they used Elektron material from CFGE; CFGE later became 50% partner in VHH. Ca. 1925, Hirth sells his share of the company to IG Farben (CFGE was a 9.6% parther of the IG), and in 1932 the Mahle brothers acquired EC. For production capacity reasons, the die-casting factory moved to Fellbach (near Stuttgart) and named Mahle Werke GmbH. A factory was added in Berlin-Spandau, for engine pistons and other aircraft parts. In 1938 the company is renamed Mahle K.G. Mahle became one of the largest non-iron/steel metal processing companies in Germany. The IG Farben became holder of the trademark name “Elektronmetall”.

 

Ca. 1928/1929, Mahle and the Lorenz company co-developed precision die-casting of Elektron and aluminium modular housings and chassis structures for (military) radio equipment. Ref. 67, 70.

 

In Germany it was determined early on that magnesium and associated alloys were strategic materials. In the US, magnesium production was insignificant, until the government rapidly ramped it up in 1939, primarily with technology licensed from the gigantic German conglomerate IG Farben, via their consortium with ALCOA/AMC and Dow Chemical. The situation in the UK was very similar. Production was negligible until the second half of the 1930s. Up to 1930, the UK imported nearly 60% of the entire German magnesium production. It was used in engines and transmissions for busses. The Magesium Elektron, Ltd. (MEL) company was founded in 1934/35 by F.A. Hughes & Co., and started magnesium production in 1936, as an IG Farben licensee for the British Commonwealth. MEL still exists today. The (publicly) recognized in the UK and US, even during WWII. Ref. 60, 61, 64, 65, 66.

 

Ref. 63, 68, 69.

 

The are no markings on the cast parts of the Feld-Hell machines that allow definitive conclusions as to whether they were made by the Mahle or the Griesheim company.


blue_line.GIF (897 bytes)

 

The wire bundles in the Feld-Hell are laced. Lacing is a method of using thin wax-impregnated cotton twine or linen cord, to tie a wire bundle with a series of knots and stitches. In the Feld-Hell, continuous running lock-stitches are used (Marline-hitches, single-hitches).

This technique is traditionally used (to this date) in military, telecommunications, marine, and aerospace systems. It is more time-consuming than using fasteners such as cable ties (a.k.a. zip ties, Ty-Rap®, wire tie). However, unlike cable ties, lacing will not crush or cut into insulating sleeves of the wiring, does not create obstructions along the bundle, and can conform to bundle shapes other than ellipses. Ref. 16.


Cable harness in the Feld-Hell electronics box

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blue_line.GIF (897 bytes)

MENDE

 

Siemens-Halske (or the Heereswaffenamt) outsourced the manufacturing of some Feld-Hell parts and subassemblies. Outsourcing may have been to optimize production capacity utilization at both small and large companies, or geographical distribution to reduce vulnerability during a potential war situation. Note that the Heereswaffenamt (and the Technische Amt of the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM), the German Air Ministry) fully controlled contract awards to prime suppliers ("Leifirmen", "Lieferer") and their sub-contractor companies ("Unterlieferanten"). This covered development and production, system assembly, subassembly, spares parts production, and manufacturing under license. Ref. 94. Licensee companies received all required design documentation, and paid license fees. The fees typically amounted to 1.5% of the product's list price, and were typically reduced or even eliminated after several years of production. During the war, the RLM regularly assumed the fees. Ref. 92.

 

As shown in the photos below, some of the "electronics boxes" were made by Radio H. Mende & Co. GmbH in Dresden (ref. 73, 75). This is indicated by the triangular Mende logo to the right of the serial number. In my database, the earliest Feld-Hell with a Mende-built electronics box, has serial number 0053 and dates back to 1935. Ca. 1939, company logos and names began to be replaced with anonymous "Herstellercodes" (manufacturer codes). The code for Mende is "bl" (see right-hand plate below). Other codes are "cmw" for the Hell company, "dms" for NSF, and "gyz" for the Dralowid-Werk. Ref. 74.

 

Mende logo and manufacturer's code on the plate of Feld-Hell electronics boxes

 

Colored Mende-logo above front plate of a 1941 Feld-Hell motor-generator

 

The Mende company was founded late 1923 by Otto Hermann Mende and Rudolf Müller as the general partnership "Offene Handelsgesellschaft H. Mende & Co." Early 1938, the company structure changed to a limited partnership ("Kommanditgesellschaft", KG). By then, they had sold a million "household" broadcast radio receivers, some under license from Philips N.V. Some broadcast receivers were used by the military, e.g., installed in submarines such as the U432. In 1935, Mende started production of teleprinters, transmitters, receivers for the army (Heer) and bomb fuses for the Luftwaffe. This included the Feldfernschreiber, Feldfernsprecher (field telephone), and Feldverstärker (field phone line amplifiers). By the end of the war, it had also produced some 25000 Tornister -Empfänger "b" (Torn.E.b.) receivers. Ref. 73.

 


1930s letterhead of Radio H. Mende & Co. G.m.b.H.

 

 

 

Mende's in-house capabilities covered everything required - other than radio tubes - for the manufacture of wired and wireless telecom equipment: tool & die making, machine building, coil winding (inductors, relay solenoids, transformers, motors), compression molding (e.g., bakelite parts, mipolam (a trade name for PVC, invented at Chemische Fabrik Griesheim (CFG) in the early 1900s) cases for type 2B38 lead-acid batteries), etc. Ref .9. Mende hardly engaged in product development.

 

The Russian occupational forces dismantled the factory during 1945-46 (ref. 26), and moved it to Russia. In 1947, the founder's son, Martin Mende, created North German Mende Broadcast GmbH in Bremen, later renamed to Nordmende. It manufactured household electronics. See ref. 89, 90, 92, 93 (pp. 50/51/58).

 

 

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blue_line.GIF (897 bytes)

 

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Ref. 1: "160 vears of Siemens", Wilfried Feldenkirchen, special edition of SiemensWorld, October 2007, 4 pp.

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Ref. 2: section I, p. 12, and section III.b, p. 17 in "Der Siemens-Hell-Feldschreiber", by Rudolf Hell's co-workers G. Ege and H. Promnitz, pp. 11-20 in "Gerätentwicklungen aus den Jahren 1929-1939", Hell - Technische Mitteilungen der Firma Dr.-Ing. Rudolf Hell, Nr. 1, May 1940 

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Ref. 3: section V, p. 24-25 in "Der Schnellmorseschreiber System Hell", G. Ege, pp. 20-26 in "Gerätentwicklungen aus den Jahren 1929-1939", Hell - Technische Mitteilungen der Firma Dr.-Ing. Rudolf Hell, Nr. 1, May 1940 

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Ref. 4: "Der Feldfernschreiber", document D 758/1 of the Oberkommando des Heeres, Heereswaffenamt, Amtsgruppe für Entwicklung und Prüfung, Berlin, 1 April 1941, [this is the official original Feld-Hell manual].

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Ref. 5: "The Hell Feldfernschreiber", translation by me, Frank Dörenberg, N4SPP, of "Der Feldfernschreiber", updated 2 May 2009.

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Ref. 6: "Kupferoxydul-Gleichrichter für Meßzwecke", Siemens-Halske geschäftliche Mitteilung Z 52-2

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Ref. 7: "Kupferoxydul - Der Beginn der Halbleiterphysik" ["Cuprous oxide - the beginning of semiconductor physics"], by R. Mikalo, updated 3/2011

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Ref. 8: "Neue Schaltungen mit der Sirutor", Funkschau, Vol. 14, Heft 3, March 1941, p. 44

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Ref. 9: "Making and baking those old-time components”, E.E. Murphy, IEEE Spectrum, Volume 26, Issue 3, March 1989, pp. 56-58

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Ref. 10: "Widerstände, Kondensatoren und sonstige Einzelteile" [1930s component technology of resistors, capactors, etc.], H. Nottebrock, Veröffentlichungen aus d. Geb. d. Nachrichtentechnik, Jg. 9, 1939, Folge 2, 11 pp., SH. 7756, 3.7.39. KV. VE., Siemens & Halske A. G., Wernerwerk, Berlin-Siemensstadt.

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Ref. 11: "Kupferoxydul-Detektor "Sirutor" / Teil C 5. Grundsätzliches" [detector diodes used in Feld-Hell], Siemens & Halske A. G., Wernerwerk, Berlin-Siemensstadt, 1940, 2 pp. , 2.8.40 KV/VE C/1561

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Ref. 12: "Kupferoxydul-Vorschaltgleichrichter" [220 Vdc power supply with Kupferoxydul rectifier diodes], Siemens & Halske A. G., Wernerwerk, Berlin-Siemensstadt, 1936, 2 pp. , 2,11,40 KV/VE C/1561

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Ref. 14: "On the origin of the super-heterodyne method", Walter Schottky, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE), Volume 14, 1926pp. 695-698

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Ref. 15: pp. 32-33 in "Von der Raketensteuerung zum Analogrechner - Helmut Hoelzers Peenemünder Arbeiten und ihr Erbe", Bernd Ulmann, Kolloquium zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften, Mathematik und Technik, Universität Hamburg, November 2008, 131 slides

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Ref. 16: "Lacing and Binding", Section 7 (pp. 9-98 – 9-110) in Chapter 9 "Cabling" of "Electronic Installation Practices Manual", NAVSHIPS 900171, 1951 with Change 2, 23 May 1952
Ref. 17: "HOGES Hochohm Widerstände (mit Kurventafeln)", HOGES resistor catalog (with price lists), HOCHOHM GmbH, Berlin-Schöneberg, 6 pp.

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Ref. 18: "HOGES C-Kondensatoren", HOGES capacitor catalog (with price lists), HOCHOHM GmbH, Berlin-Schöneberg, 6. VIII. 20/5, 10 pp.

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Ref. 19: "Jahre - Kondensatoren, Gleichstrom-Transformatoren, Summer", Jahre catalog Nr. 737, 1938

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Ref. 20: "Turbax Hartgewebe - geräuschlose Zahnräder" (noise-free gears), Jaroslaw product brochure, Form T.B.D. 501 Z. 153 DH. 60 000 X. 28., year??, 2 pp.

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Ref. 21: "Fabrikations-Programm", product overview, Jaroslaw's brochure Z 162/35. DH. 2000 II. 35, 1935, 2 pp.

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Ref. 22: chapter 3, pp. 168-170 in "Of Bicycles, Bakelites, and Bulbs: Toward a Theory of Sociotechnical Change", Wiebe E. Bijker, MIT Press, 1997, 390 pp., ISBN 0-262-52227-6   

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Ref. 23: "Von der Schallplatte zur Schichtstoffplatte - 100 Jahre H. Römmler GmbH" ("From gramophone record to laminates - 100 years H. Römmler GmbH")

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Ref. 24: "75 Jahre Marke RESOPAL®", 75 years Resopal brand history overview by Resopal GmbH

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Ref. 25: "100 Jahre OSRAM - Licht hat einen namen" and "100 years of OSRAM - Light has a name" from http://www.osram.de/ and http://www.osram.com/

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Ref. 26: "Elektrotechnisches von der V2", F. Kirschstein, "Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift", Vol. 71, Nr. 11, 22 May 1950, pp. 281-287

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Ref. 27: "Empfangsversuche mit dem Sirutor", F. Nitturra, Funkschau, Vol. 13, Nr. 2, February 1940, p. 29

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Ref. 28: "Der billige Dynamische kommt ans Wechselstromnetz", Funkschau, Vol. 3, 1930, p. 408

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Ref. 29: figure 3 in "Anregungen zum Detektorempfang", H.-A. Dennig, Funkschau, Vol. 16, Heft 8/9, August/September 1943, p. 80

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Ref. 30: "Über die Halbleitereigenschaften des Kupferoxyduls. I Das Herstellungsverfahren unter Berücksichtigung der Stabilitätsbedingungen", G. Blankenburg, K. Kassel, Annalen der Physik, Vol. 445, 1952, Issue 4, pp. 201-210

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Ref. 31: "Über einige Halbleitereigenschaften des Kupferoxyduls", C. Fritzsche, Annalen der Physik, Vol. 450, 1955, Issue 3-4, pp. 178-18

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Ref. 32: "Über die Halbleitereigenschaften des Kupferoxyduls. XVI. Kennlinie und Kapazität von Kupferoxydul-Gleichrichtern", H. Nieke, Annalen der Physik, Vol. 478, 1969, Issue 5-6, pp. 25-270

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Ref. 33: "Über die Halbleitereigenschaften des Kupferoxyduls. XV. Kupfer-Oxydul-Gleichrichter aus einkristallinem Kupfer", H. Nieke, Annalen der Physik, Vol. 478, 1969, Issue 5-6 , pp. 244–250

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Ref. 34: Copper Oxide Rectifiers in Standard Broadcast Transmitters”, R.N. Harmon, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE), December 1942, pp. 534-535  

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Ref. 35: “Über die Halbleitereigenschaften des Kupferoxyduls. II Der Einfluß der Fehlordnung auf die optische Absorption“, K. Kassel, Annalen der Physik, Volume 445, 1951, Issue 4-5, pp. 211-216

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Ref. 36: "Über die Halbleitereigenschaften des Kupferoxyduls. III Die Abhängigkeit der spezifischen elektrischen Leitfähigkeit bei tiefer Temperatur vom Sauerstoffdruck einer vorhergehenden Temperung“, G. Blankenburg, C. Fritzsche, G. Schubart, Annalen der Physik, Volume 445, 1952, Issue 4-5, pp. 217-231

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Ref. 37: "Über die Halbleitereigenschaften des Kupferoxyduls. IV Leitfähigkeitsmessungen bei hohen Temperaturen“, O. Böttger et al, Annalen der Physik, Vol. 445, 1952, pp. 232-240

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Ref. 38: "Über die Halbleitereigenschaften des Kupferoxyduls. V Zur Deutung der Temperungsdruckabhängigkeiten der elektrischen Leitfähigkeit bei tiefen Temperaturen“, G. Blankenburg, O. Böttger, Annalen der Physik, Volume 445, 1952, Issue 4-5, pp. 241-252

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Ref. 39: "Über die Halbleitereigenschaften des Kupferoxyduls. VI. Die Temperaturabhängigkeit der elektrischen Leitfähigkeit bei Temperaturen zwischen + 20° C und -190° C“, G. Blankenburg, G. Schubart, Annalen der Physik, Vol. 447, 1953, Issue 4-6, pp. 281-296

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Ref. 40: "Über die Halbleitereigenschaften des Kupferoxyduls. VII Der Halleffekt unterhalb der Zimmertemperatur“, H. Nieke, Annalen der Physik, Vol. 447, 1953, Issue 4, pp.297-308

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Ref. 41: "Über die Halbleitereigenschaften des Kupferoxyduls. VIII. Die elektrische Leitfähigkeit bei 0° C als Funktion des Ortes innerhalb der Probe“, C. Fritzsche, Annalen der Physik, Vol. 449, 1954, Issue 3-5, pp. 135-140

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Ref. 42: "Über die Halbleitereigenschaften des Kupferoxyduls. IX. Halleffektsmessungen bei tiefen Temperaturen“, P. Schmidt, Vol. 449, 1954, Issue 6-8, pp. 265 - 289

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Ref. 43: "Über die Halbleitereigenschaften des Kupferoxyduls. X. Beobachtungen der elektrischen Leitfähigkeit bei Störung des thermodynamischen Gleichgewichtes zwischen 600° C und 1000° C innerhalb und außerhalb des Stabilitätsgebietes von Cu2O“, G. Blankenburg, Annalen der Physik, Vol. 449, 1954, Issue 6, pp.290-307

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Ref. 44: "Über die Halbleitereigenschaften des Kupferoxyduls. XI. Das Verhalten des Kupferoxyduls im Stabilitätsgebiet des Kupferoxyds“, G. Blankenburg, Annalen der Physik, Vol. 449, 1954, Issue 6-8, pp. 308–318

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Ref. 45: "Über die Halbleitereigenschaften des Kupferoxyduls. XII Die Leitfähigkeit des Kupferoxyduls innerhalb des Existenzgebietes bei hohen Temperaturen im Bereich kleiner Drucke“, K. Stecker, Annalen der Physik, Vol. 458, 1959, Issue 1-2, pp. 55-69

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Ref. 46: "Über die Halbleitereigenschaften des Kupferoxyduls. XIII Leitfähigkeitsmessungen an Kupferoxydul im Existenzgebiet bei Störung des thermodynamischen Gleichgewichtes“, K. Stecker, Annalen der Physik , Vol. 458, 1959, Issue 1-2, pp. 70-81

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Ref. 47: "Über die Halbleitereigenschaften des Kupferoxyduls. XIV. Die Dielektrizitätskonstante von Kupfer(I)-Oxid“, H. Nieke, Annalen der Physik , Vol. 478, 1969, Issue 5-6, pp. 237-243

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Ref. 48: "Prof. Dr. W. Schottky zum 65. Geburtstag“, H. Rukop, Telefunken-Zeitung“ (Technisch wissenschaftliche Mitteilungen der Telefunken GmbH), Telefunken-Gesellschaft für Drahtlose Telegraphie (Berlin), Jg. 24, Heft 93, December 1951, pp. 191-192 

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Ref. 49: "Historical German contributions to physics and applications of electromagnetic oscillations and waves", M. Thumm, Chapter 11, pp. 327-348, in "History of Wireless", Wiley-IEEE, 2006, ISBN 9780471718147, 680 pp.

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Ref. 50: "Die Stammfirmen der Osram-Fusion", Chapter 5 (pp. 279-299) in "Massenproduktion im globalen Kartell - Glühlampen, Radioröhren und die Rationalisierung der Elektroindustrie bis 1945“, Günther Luxbacher, Verlag für Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik, 2003, 490 pp., ISBN 978-3-928186-68-1

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Ref. 53: "Kunstharzpressstoffe und andere Kunststoffe: Eigenschaften, Verarbeitung und Anwendung", Walter Mehdorn, Springer Verlag, 3rd ed., 1949, 354 pp., ASIN: B0000BLFXN [the posted file only contains some selected pages]. The 1938 listing of Kunststoffkenzeichen is here.

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Ref. 54: "Hartpapier und Hartgewebe [25 MB], Karl Nerz, M. & S. Moser - Fachliteratur-Ermittlungs- und Berichtsdienst für Industrie und Forschung, 1951, 21 pp., ASIN: B0000BLY2N

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Ref. 55: "Neues über Widerstände, Kondensatoren und Spulen“, H. von Nottebrock, Siemens-Zeitschrift, Band 18, Heft 7, July 1938, p. 329-338

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Ref. 56: 2-page product advert in "Dralowid Nachrichten - Zeitschrift für Rundfunkfreunde", Jahrgang 4, Heft 2, Nr. 32, February 1930

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Ref. 57: "Die Entstehung und Entwicklung der Produktion von technischer Keramik, insbesondere elektrotechnischen Porzellan- und Steatitartikeln in Bayern und Thüringen bis in die 1920er Jahre", H.-P. Rönneper, 2006, PhD dissertation, 682 pp.

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Ref. 58: several pages from "Dralowid Bastler Katalog", ca. 1938

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Ref. 59: "Vom Gummireifen zur Kunststoffkarosse", Günter Lattermann, Kunststoffe, 05/2010, pp. 104-110; English version: "From Rubber Tires to Plastic Cars", Günter Lattermann, Kunststoffe international, 2010/05, pp. 56-61. The respective literature references are here and here.

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Ref. 60: "A Lighter Age Is Coming", Scientific American, Volume 246, 1943, p. 253-254 [die-casting, Elektron, magnesium alloys]

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Ref. 61: "History until 1945" and "History since 1945", respectively by Kurt Harbodt and Robert E. Brown; Chapter 1.1 and 1.2 in  "Magnesium technology: metallurgy, design data, applications", Horst E. Friedrich, Barry L. Mordike (eds.), Springer Verlag, 2006, 677 pp., ISBN 3540308121  See note 1.  Also accessible via Google books here.

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Ref. 62: pp. 2, 39, 44, 49, 60, 140, 141, 187  in "Die elektrochemischen Werke in Bitterfeld 1914 - 1945: ein Standort der IG-Farbenindustrie AG", Dirk Hackenholz, LIT Verlag Münster, 2004, 422 pp.

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Ref. 63: "A Note on Magnesium Alloy for Castings: The Properties and Practical Processes in the Production of Magnesium Alloy Castings with Special Reference to Elektron", E. Player, Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 1, Iss. 5, 1929, pp. 175-178   

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Ref. 64: Magnesium and Its Alloys Recent Developments in Great Britain“, J. L. Haughton, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 31, no. 8, August 1939, pp 969–971 

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Ref. 65: Magnesium castings aid Britain's industrial recovery”, G.B. Partridge, Production Engineer (Journal of the Institution of Production Engineers), Vol. 28, Issue 7, July 1949, pp. 334-349

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Ref. 66: "German Army Wireless Equipment - A critical survey of the mechanical and electrical features", W. Farrar, The Royal Signals Quarterly Journal (New Series), Volume 1, Nr. 2 & 3, April 1947, p. 62-6660,

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Ref. 67: pp. 4 in "The significance of German electronic engineering in the 1930s" Arthur Bauer, PA0AOB, presented at the 2004 IEEE Conference on the History of Electronics (CHE2004), Bletchley Park, UK, June 2004.

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Ref. 68: "Chemische Fabrik Griesheim - Pioneer of Electrochemistry", Dieter Wagner, Journal of Business Chemistry, Vol. 3, Issue 2, May 2006, pp. 31-38

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Ref. 69: "History of Magnesium Production", Bob Brown, www.magnesium.com

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Ref. 70: p. 47, 48, 115 in "Die deutschen Funknachrichtenanlagen bis 1945; Band 3 "Funk- und Bordsprechanlagen in Panzerfahrzeugen"", Hans-Joachim Ellisen,  See note 1.

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Ref. 71: "The history of magnesium", Journal of the American Society for Naval Engineers, Vol. 69, February 1957, pp. 81–94

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Ref. 72: "Johann Philipp Reis, 1834 - 1874 - 1934", Elektrische Nachrichten-Technik (E.N.T.), Band 11, Heft 1, Jan. 1934, pp. 1-3

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Ref. 73: "Radio Mende / Rüstungsbetrieb 1898/99", p. 78 in "Dresden 1933-1945: der historische Reiseführer", Hartmut Ellrich, Links Christoph Verlag, 2008, 128 pp. ISBN-10: 9783861534983, ISBN-13: 978-3861534983

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Ref. 74: "Übersicht Deutsche WaA-Herstellerstempelungen"

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Ref. 75: "Die Fertigung von Nachrichtengerät bei Radio Mende 1939 - 1945", Werner Thote, Funkgeschichte (Gesellschaft der Freunde der Geschichte des Funkwesens e.V.), Heft 117, 1998, pp. 46-51  See note 1.

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Ref. 76: “A new electronic rectifier”, Lars O. Grondahl, Paul H. Geiger, pp. 357-366 in "Transactions of the A.I.E.E.", Vol. 46, February 1927   

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Ref. 77: "Unidirectional Current-Carrying Device", L.O. Grondahl, U.S. patent 1,640,335, filed: 7 January 1925, awarded: 23 August 1927    

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Ref. 78: "Neuer Kupferoxydul-Gleichrichter", pp. 256, 257 in "Siemens-Zeitschrift", Jg. 14, H. 7, July 1934   

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Ref. 79: "Neue Sirufer-Kerne für Hochfrequenzspulen", pp. 393-396 in "Siemens-Zeitschrift", Bd. 17, H. 7, July 1937 

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Ref. 80: "Siemens Company history", Siemens Archives, 2008, 7 pp.     

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Ref. 81: "Siemens A.G.Business Information, Profile, and History", Company Profiles Vol. 76,  Net Industries, 2008   

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Ref. 82: "Werner von Siemens", Siemens Archives, 2007, 4 pp.     

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Ref. 83: "Helmut Hoelzer's Fully Electronic Analog Computer", James E. Tomayko, IEE Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 7, nr. 3, July-Sept. 1985, pp. 227-240   [17 MB    

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Ref. 84: "The Circuit Centennial" [history of the printed circuit board, starting 1903], Ken Gilleo, Emerging Technologies (ET) Trends (e-magazine), 28 April 2003       

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Ref. 85: "TURBAX Hartgewebe. Aus Gewebe und Kunstharz", Jaroslaw, 1938, 8 pages

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Ref. 86: "Bakelite - Seine Herstellung und Verwendung" [Bakelite, its manufacture and application], Bakelite Gesellschaft mbH, document 668/3537/Wbr, 1937, 44 pp.

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Ref. 87: "Moulding bakelite materials: the design, production, and use of moulds for synthetic resin compounds", Volume 3 of Machinery's yellow-back series, Machinery Publishing Co., Ltd., 2nd ed., 1942, 62 pp.

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Ref. 88: "Der Sammler 2B38 als Stromquelle für die mobile Funktechnik der Deutschen Wehrmacht" [battery for mobile radios of the Wehrmacht], Max Schindler, update of October 2010, 14 pp.

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Ref. 89"Rundfunkindustrie in Dresden - Radio Mende und Funkwerk Dresden", Waldemar Ueberfuhr, March 2007, 3 pp.; Appendix 5.1.1 to "VEB Robotron-Meßelektronik "Otto Schön" Dresden".

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Ref. 90: "Mende, Nordmende", pp. 101 in "Radios von gestern", Ernst Erb, M.u.K Hansa, 1998, 456 pp., ISBN-10: 3907007093

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Ref. 91: p. 89 in "Bordfunkgeräte von Dr. Dietz & Ritter"´, Werner Thote, Funkgeschichte (Gesellschaft der Freude der Geschichte des Funkwesens e.V.), Vol. 28, 2005, Nr. 161. pp. 89-97.   See note 1. 

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Ref. 92: "Radiogeschichte im Dresdner Norden", Dresdner Neustadt Online, Archiv: Thema Radio-Mende, 18 January 2004 

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Ref. 93: "Rüstungsproduktion im Raum Dresden 1933-1945", Heinz Schulz, Arbeitskreis Sächsische Militärgeschichte e.V., 2005, 130 pp., ISBN 3980952010

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Ref. 94: top of p. 19 and bottom of p. 49 in "Aus der Rüstung des Dritten Reiches (Das Heereswaffenamt 1938-1945); ein authentischer Bericht des letzten Chefs des Heereswaffenamtes“, General Emil Leeb (last chief of the Heereswaffenamt), Wehrtechnische Monatshefte (Zeitschrift für Wehrtechnik, Wehrindustrie und Wehrwirtschaft, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Wehrtechnik), Beiheft 4, May 1958, 70 pp.  [62 MB !]

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Ref. 95: "Bakelite Moulding and Its Application in the Telephone Industry", F. van Laethem, Electrical Communication, Vol. 13, No. 3, January 1936, pp. 192-201

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Ref. 95: "Telephones Invented Previous to Bell's", in "Manufacturer and Builder", Vol. 26, Issue 4, April 1894, pp. 74-75; reprinted in "Singing Wires Newsletter" of the Telephone Collectors International, Vol. 19, Nr. 6, 15 June 2005, pp. 6-7

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Ref. 96: pp. 95-96 in  SubCommittee for the Investigation of German Electronic and Scientific Organisation (SIGESO) Report,  Vol. 1, Part 1. Source: www.cdvandt.org.sigeso.htm

Note 1: Due to copyright reasons, this file is in a password-protected directory. Contact me if you need access for research or personal study purposes.

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