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©2004-2019 F. Dörenberg, unless stated otherwise. All rights reserved worldwide. No part of this publication may be used without permission from the author.


Latest page update: October-November 2019 (uploaded ref. 104, complete map for ref. 210A, added maps ref. 210E-210W, added ref. 179 and associated text)


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BERNHARD INSTALLATION BE-13 AT BUKE

Map

The station at Buke is located on Keimberg hill at the southern end of the Teutoburg forest, about 1.8 km northeast of the village of Buke, which is part of the Altenbeken municipality. Its altitude of 376 m ASL (1200 ft) gives it a fully unobstructed view from the south to the northwest (the direction of inbound enemy airplanes), and no terrain higher by more than 70 m (230 ft) in the other quadrants. See this interactive topographic map (with Be-13 marker).

The nearest city is Paderborn, ca. 13 km to the west. It had a Luftwaffe airfield, as did, e.g., Detmold-Hohenloh 20 km to the north (in the former county of Lippe), Geseke-Störmede 35 km to the southwest, Lippstadt 45 km to the southwest, Gütersloh 45 km to the northwest, Bad Lippspringe 11 km to the northwest, Bielefeld-Örlinghausen 30 km to the northwest, and Kassel-Rothwesten 60 km to the southeast.

Construction of the station started in May of 1944 and was completed by the end of March 1945. Entry into service was planned for May of 1945, after calibration flights.

The equipment was scuttled by the Germans, when the American troops approached at the very beginning of May 1945. After the war, many parts were re-used locally. The rail tracks, cross-ties, and antenna structure were used in the reconstruction of war-damaged homes and buildings, and for farm equipment (ref. 99, 114). The motors of the electro-locomotives were used to power grain threshing machines. Buke ended up in the British occupation zone (1945-1949), and the British destroyed what was left of the installation structures with explosives.

Berhard station

Fig. 217: Be-13 is marked on a Luftnachrichten map of July 1944

(source: ref. 210B; the blue circle marks the actual position)

In the figure above, the Be-13 symbol appears to have been put arbitrarily somewhere southwest of Kassel. However, Be-13 is north-northwest of Kassel. I have marked the actual position with a blue circle.

Ref. 99 and 104 provide interesting details about the history of this station. Actually three (!) Bernhard equipment sets appear to have been shipped to Buke:

  • a new set, straight from the Telefunken equipment factory and from the antenna manufacturer Hein, Lehman & Co. in Berlin; the latter is confirmed by line item 12 in ref. 177B, which also claims that Hein actually installed the large antenna system.
  • the equipment set from Trebnitz (Be-11; Trzebnica, Breslau, Wroclaw), dismantled by the retreating Germans, ahead of the advancing Russian troops.
  • the equipment set from Arcachon (Be-7), dismantled by the retreating Germans after the Allied invasion of France.

Per ref. 179 (September 1944), equipment from Be-8 was to be transferred to Be-13. However, this is contradicted by reports that Be-8 was (briefly) operational again during the spring of 1945, after having been damaged during an RAF air raid on 23 September of 1944...

Berhard station

Fig. 218: Three "Bernhard" systems were transported to Buke


That three equipment sets were shipped to Buke, is attributed to administrative and logistic hiccups during the latter days of the war. The two superfluous sets were stored at the large furniture factory Leopoldstaler Möbelfabrik August Brandt & Co. G.m.b.H. in nearby Leopoldstal (11 km / 7 mi north of Buke).

Bernhard station

Fig. 219: Letterhead of the "August Brand" furniture company


Ref. 99 states on the one hand that the (entire) installation from Arcachon was moved to Buke, but also that (only) the equipment from Arcachon was re-used at Buke. The latter is corroborated by a post-war picture of the installation at Arcachon: it shows a dismantled, partly collapsed, damaged installation.

Clearly, the Buke station was planned to be equipped with factory-new equipment, to have its own Be-number, and an optical disk encoded with that number.

Bernhard station

Fig. 220: 1945 aerial photo of the Bernhard installation at Buke

(source: ref. 99, 100; the original photo is upside-down / south-side up)

Bernhard station

Fig. 221: 2011 satellite image of the same location as in the aerial photo above


The circles in the photos above mark the following structures:

  • Nr. 1, 4, 5 (at the center of the photo): concrete ring with two bunkers of unequal size; a "Gerätebunker" for equipment, and a "Manschaftsbunker" for personnel.
  • Nr. 2 (550 m / 600 yards to the northwest of Nr. 1): the "Diodenmast" (antenna for the signal-monitoring receiver) on a 3x3m (10x10 ft) foundation.
  • Nr. 3 (400 m / 450 yards to the east of Nr. 1): a building of ca. 5x6m (15x20 ft). This was a "Hochspannungsbunker", i.e., a high-voltage bunker. The local public electrical power net was extended to this bunker (ref. 99). Note: per my own measurements, this bunker actually measured ≈4x5 m (12x15 ft).

In April of 2015, I finally had the opportunity to visit the site. The foundation of the monitoring antenna mast and the "high-voltage" bunker were easily located. But it took me a while to find the ring in the, now wooded and overgrown, area.

Bernhard station

Fig. 222: Satellite image of the Buke site (ca. 2011)


Less than a third of the ring is visible. It is broken into three sections. A large section on the north side barely sticks out above ground level. Next to it is another large section. It is tilted over on its outside by about 45 degrees. See photos below. The ring has the standard 1.5 m width. It is about 1.4 m high.

Bernhard station

Fig. 223: The large turned-over section of the concrete ring


Since the ring is broken into sections, we can get a good look at the cross-section. The ring appears to have been cast with as many as six distinct parts, see the photo below. The small ring-section that matches up with this butt-end shows the vertical division of the outside parts even clearer. The top layer is about 7 cm (3 inch) thick.

Bernhard station

Fig. 224: Cross-section of the ring


The smaller, third section (about 2½ m long) is fully turned over on its outside. The right-hand side in the photo below, is the cross-section that matches with the one shown above. The dark blue mark-ups on the left-hand side of the image ( = top side of the ring) show two pairs of 20 mm M20 threaded steel bar ("re-bar") sticking out. They are the mounting bolts for the rail-chairs (clamps). The spacing between the bolts on the inside of the ring (top of the image) and the outside of the ring, is 96 cm (3 ft 2 inch) on-center. The bolts of each pair are spaced by 18.5 cm (7¼ inch) on-center.

Bernhard station

Fig. 225: Mounting bolts and dimples on the top side of the ring


The dark blue arrows point at three "dimples" on the centerline of the top of the ring, between the inside & outside pairs of bolts. Such dimples exist in the top of the entire ring. The photo shows something rather curious! The dimple at the left arrow has a vertically installed piece of I-beam sticking out! See photo below. The one at the middle arrow has the normal rectangular outline, but its bottom is curved. The dimple on the right is a "standard" rectangular dimple, 20 cm (8 inch) wide and 15 cm (6 inch) deep.

Bernhard station

Fig. 226: The three different dimples


Bernhard station

Fig. 227: The outside of the ring - with marks from the vertical boards of the casing in which the concrete was poured


According to ref. 99 (from 1997), the roof of the bunker to the southeast of the ring had been blown off by the British, and a hunting cabin was built on top of the remnants in 1957. The satellite image in Fig. 222 above shows a house. This house (with a sign that it is a vacation rental home) is visible from the street, and clearly built on top of another structure.

The bunker behind the house, close to the fence on the north side, is collapsed:

Bernhard station

Fig. 228: The collapsed bunker behind the house (north side), close to the fence


The foundation of the mast for the monitoring antenna has the standard 3x3 m (10x10 ft) dimension, and is at least 30 cm (1 ft) thick. It is now surrounded by three trees:

Bernhard station

Fig. 229: The 3x3 m concrete foundation of the monitoring antenna mast


The power-geneartor bunker, some 400 m (¼ mile) to the east of the Bernhard ring, is also collapsed: the concrete roof has dropped straight down onto the foundation:

Bernhard station

Fig. 230: The collapsed power-generator bunker



REFERENCES

  • Ref. 99 "Völlig in Vergessenheit geraten: Funkanlage bei Buke", Hans-Walter Wichert, in "Die Warte - Heimatzeitschrift für die Kreise Paderborn und Höxter", Nr. 24, December 1979, pp. 14-15, ISSN 0939-8686 (courtesy Mr. R. Gellhaus and H.-W. Wichert)
  • Ref. 100: pp. 12-13 in "Interpretation of Wireless Installations", Vol. VII of "Development of Photographic Intelligence", Directorate of Intelligence, US Air Force Headquarters, Washington D.C., 1945
  • Ref. 104: p. 151 in "Flugnavigations Hilfen in Ostwestfalen", section in "Die Geschichte der angewanten Informationstechnik in Ostwestfalen/Lippe", Hans Walter Wichert, pp. 128-157 in "Vom Stadtboten zur Informationsgesellschaft: Post- und Kommunikationsgeschichte in Paderborn und Ostwestfalen-Lippe", Norbert Börste (Publ.), Schriftenreihe des Fördervereins des Historischen Museums im Marshall von Paderborn, 2002, 271 pp., ISBN 3897102366
  • Ref. 114: page 37 in "Denkmalschutz und Fremdenverkehr", M. Klawitter, pp. 36-37 in "Die Warte - Heimatzeitschrift für die Kreise Paderborn und Höxter". Nr. 23, November 1979, ISSN 0939-8686
  • Ref. 177: post-war letters [in German] from the company "Hein, Lehmann & Co. Eisenkonstruktionen, Brücken- und Signalbau K.-G." in Berlin-Tempelhof to Telefunken in Berlin, with claims ("Altforderungen") regarding delivery and installation of various types of antenna systems (arrays, tube & lattice masts, wooden masts, metal-clad wooden huts, verticals, dishes, turntables, for "Bernhard", "Marius", "Marius II", "Uran II", "Forsthaus-KF", etc.), installations in Germany, Hungary, Monte Carlo, Croatia, etc., during the period of July 1942 through the end of the war (8 May 1945); source: corporate archives of DTM Berlin, file nr. I.2.060C-00541:
  • Ref. 177A: Letter from Hein, Lehmann & Co. to Telefunken with payment status of 17 Telefunken purchase orders and the resulting outstanding significant claim; dated 19 June 1949, 2 pp.
  • Ref. 177B: Letter from Hein, Lehmann & Co. to Telefunken with adjusted claims, based on assessment of Telefunken counter-claims; dated 19 June 1950, 8 pp.
  • Ref. 177C: Letter from Hein, Lehmann & Co. to Telefunken, with further justification for claims regarding delivery & installation of 12 "Bernhard" antenna systems (against purchase order of July 1941) for Be-2 - Be-8 and Be-12, of 6 associated "Dioden-Masten" antenna masts (based on price quote of September 1941), and delivery (without installation) of the antenna systems of Be-1 and Be-9 - Be-11; dated 5 February 1951, 3 pp.
  • Ref. 179: "Votragsnotiz", draft presenter notes addressed to the General-Nachrichtenführer (Gen-Nafü), 3 September 1944, 3 pp.
  • Covers original plans for geographic coverage (France, German Reich) with Bernhard stations, state of completion of the various Be-stations, status of introduction of the Bernhard/Bernhardine method for night-fighters (Nachtjagd).
  • Source: Bundesarchiv (BArch) Freiburg/Germany (Signatur)  file nr. RL 2-V/6, used in accordance with "Erstinformation für Ihren Besuch im Bundesarchiv in Freiburg, Stand Juni 2016"
  • Ref. 210: Maps (charts) with Luftnachrichten Anlagen (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations) from the Bundesarchiv (BArch) Freiburg/Germany, used in accordance with "Erstinformation für Ihren Besuch im Bundesarchiv in Freiburg, Stand Juni 2016". Note: at the Archive, only free-hand photography is allowed (no tripod, etc.), under sub-obtimal lighting conditions. Also, most of the maps are large, are folded into A4-size (ca. 21x30 cm, ≈8x12 inch), and are not flat when unfolded...
  • Ref. 210A: "Funk-Navigationsanlagen im Reichsgebiet" (radio-navigation stations in the Reich),  Oberkommando der Luftwaffe [OKL] - Generalnachrichtenführer 1- II. Map is dated 15 June 1944. [file size: 65 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here 12 MB],
  • Bernhard stations Be-0, Be-9, B-10, Be-11, and Be-12 are marked on this map. Map size 4x5 A4-size panels.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8 "Ln. Anlagen (Karten)", Bandnr. 2, Teil 2 of "Anlage B, Teil 2: Ln. Anlagen verschiedener Art, Juni - Aug. 1944"
  • Ref. 210B: "Bernhard"-Anlagen im Reichsgebiet"(radio-navigation stations in the Reich), OKL - Generalnachrichtenführer Abt. 1/ II. Map is dated 1 July 1944.  [file size: 24 MB]
  • Bernhard stations Be-0, Be-6, Be-8 through Be-12, and Be-14 through Be-16 are marked on this map. Map size 5x2½ A4-size panels.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210C: "Ln.-Anlagen Westfront" (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations on the western front) . Map is dated 30 August 1944. [file size: 22 MB].
  • Bernhard station Be-6 is marked on this map. Map size 4x3 A4-size panels.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210D: "Funk-Navigationsanlagen Ost-Raum" (radio-navigation installations, eastern area), OKL Generalnachrichtenführer 1. Abt.II. Map is dated 15 June 1944. [file size: 44 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 26 MB]
  • Map is marked with locations of Sonne, Komet, Zyklop, Egon, and Truhe stations. Map size 5x5 A4-size panels.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210E: "Funk-Navigationsanlagen Westraum" (radio-navigation installations, eastern area), OKL - Generalnachrichtenführer 1. Abt. II. Map is dated 15 June 1944. [file size: 83 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 10 MB].
  • Bernhard stations Be-2, Be-6,  Be-8, and Be-10 are marked on this map. Map is marked with locations of Sonne, Knickebein, Komet, Zyklop, Bernhard, Truhe, Erika, Y-(Kampf), Egon (Kampf), Baldur, Peildörfer, Flugsicherungshaupstellen, and Flugsichsrungszentralen.
  • Map size 6x5 A4-sheets (WxH). Map scale is 1:2000000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210F: "Funknavigationsanlagen" (radio-navigation installations), OKL - Generalnachrichtenführer 1. Abt.II Map is dated 1 October 1944. [file size: 107 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 13 MB].
  • Map covers Europe, from mid-Scandinavia down to mid-Italy. Map is marked with locations of Sonne, Zyklop, Egon, Truhe, Bernhard, Y-Kampf, Hermine, Knickebein, Komet, Erika, Flugsicherungs-Zentralen, Flugsicherungshauptstellen. Map size 7x4 A4-sheets (WxH). Map scale 1:200000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13.
  • Ref. 210G: "Flughafen-Bereichskommando (Koflug) 10/XII". Map is not dated.
  • Koflug 10/XII moved to Morlaix/Bretagne in July of 1940; it was dissolved in October of 1944.
  • Bernhard station Be-2 is marked on this map. Map is marked up with Korps- & Divisions-boundaries, Ln.-Anlagen, Flugwachen, Fliegerhorste, Unterstellungen, Armeekorps LXXIV & XXV; map scale 1:500000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 20/310.
  • Ref. 210H: "Kommando des Flughafenbereiches 8/XII (Morlaix)" (Kdo FHB 8-XII). Map is dated 6 July 1944. [file size: 91 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 31 MB].
  • Bernhard station Be-2 is marked on this map. Map covers the western half of Brittany (Bretagne). Map is marked with boundaries at Ln. Korps & Division level; Map scale 1:200000.
  • The original large single-sheet map (ca. 120x105 cm overall size) was divided into 4x5 separate map panels of ca. A4 size, that were glued onto a large sheet of thin gray canvas, and folded.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 20/310.
  • Ref. 210J: Map of FuMG Stellungen in Litauen [Luftwaffe radar sites in Lithuania], Oberkommando der Luftwaffe - Generalnachrichtenführer (O.K.L. Gen.Nafü), 1. Abt. (III). Map is dated 21 July 1944.
  • Flugwachkommandos, Flugmeldezentralen, Luftflottengrenzen also marked on the map. Map scale 1:2500000, Zchs.Nr. 44/46.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/6.
  • Ref. 210K: Map "Ln. Anlagen im Raume Rumänien" (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations in Rumania]). Map is dated 25 August 1944. [file size: 25 MB].
  • Map is marked with locations of FuMG, Funknav. Anlagen, LVerm., Jägerleistellungen. Map size 5x2 A4-sheets (WxH).
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210L: Map "Ln. Anlagen im Raume Bulgarien" (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations in Bulgaria). Map is dated 25 August 1944. [file size: 21 MB]
  • Map is marked with locations of FuMG, Funknav. Anlagen, LVerm., Flugsicherungshaupstellen, Jägerleistellungen. Also, 1 map panel has listing of Luftnachrichtentruppe units present in Bulgaria at that time. Map size 5x2 A4-sheets (WxH).
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210M: "Ln.-Anlagen im Raume Finnland - Übersichtskarte von Nord-Finnland" (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations in Finland). [file size: 34 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 4 MB]. Map is dated 14 October 1944.
  • Map is marked with locations of FuMG, Funknav. Anlagen Sonne, Kzw-Adcock, Luftparke, FMZ, S.u.J.-Stellen, Frontrep. Betriebe, LVerm., Flugsicherungshaupstellen, and Jägerdienste. Map markings include dates of explosive destruction or disassembly ("Sprengung", "Abbau"). Map size 3x2½ A4-sheets (WxH).
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13/K5.
  • Ref. 210N: "Untitled map of northernmost Scandinavia". Map is not dated.
  • Map is marked with location of "Sonne" beacons S-20 at Andö and S-17 at Svanvik, Flugsicherungszentralen "Lofoten", "Polarmeer", nr. 11 at Kemi/Finland. Map scale 1:4000000. Map size 2x1 A4-sheets (WxH).
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13.
  • Ref. 210P: "Ln.-Anlagen Baltikum" (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations in the Baltic area). Map is dated 18 September 1944. [file size: 24 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 3 MB].
  • Map is marked with locations of FuM, LV, and RV-Netz. Map size 2x2 A4-sheets (WxH).
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13/K3.
  • Ref. 210Q: "Ln. Anlagen im Raume Griechenland" (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations in Greece). Map is dated 30 August 1944 - 5 November 1944 [file size: 26 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 4 MB].
  • Map is marked with locations of FuMG, Flugsicherungszentralen, L. Verm., Luftparke, Ln. Gast., Frontrep. Betr., Rep. & Sammelstellen f. Bordfunk Geräte. Map size 4x2 (WxH) A4-sheets.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13.
  • Ref. 210R: Map "Drahtlage Ost" (wired communication links, eastern area). Map is not dated. [file size: 21 MB].
  • Map is marked with line types (DK, Zuspannung, Heereslinie, Fernkabel, I-Kabel, LF-Kabel), LV, Schaltstellen. Scale 1:2500000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210S: "I. Flugsicherungsbezirke" (air traffic control districts), OKL. Gen.-Nafü, 1. Abt. II. Map is dated 1 October 1944. [file size: 91 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is is here, 11 MB].
  • Colored map covers area of the southern half of Scandinavia through Greece. A seperate smal map of entire Scandinavia is attached to the back of the map (included). Map is marked with locations of Flugsicherungszentralen, Flugsicherungshauptstellen. Map scale 1:200000. Map size 5x4 (WxH) A4-sheets.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13.
  • Ref. 210T: "I. Flugsicherungsbezirke" (air traffic control districts). Map is dated 1 October 1944. [file size: 17 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 2 MB].
  • Black & white map covers area of the southern half of Scandinavia through Greece. Map is marked with locations of Flugsicherungs-Hauptstellen and Flugsicherungszentralen. Map size: 3x2 (WxH) A4-sheets.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13.
  • Ref. 210U: "Wassermann-Einsatz und -Planung" (operational and planned Wasserman sites), Zeichgs-Nr. 44/18-1-A, GKdos, OKL. Gen.-Nafü, 1. Abt. III. Map is dated 20 June 1944. [file size: 76 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 8 MB].
  • Map covers area of northern Britain to northwestern Egypt. Map is marked with locations of Wassermann (L/M/S; operational/under construction/planned by Luftflotten, proposed by O.K.L. Gen.Nafü.), Fu.MG (nachtjagdfähig), Jagdschloß, Mammut, Freya (+ An , + An & Kuh, + Kuh & Gemse, + Fahrstuhl), Würzburg (A-D, Riese, Riese + Gema Zusatz).
  • Map size: 6x5 (WxH) A4-sheets. Map scale 1:2500000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/9.
  • Ref. 210V: "Jägermeßstellungen" (radar sites for fighter intercept guidance), Zeichgs-Nr. 44/17-2-A, GKdos, OKL. Gen.-Nafü, 1. Abt. III. Map is dated 20 June 1944. [file size: 61 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 25 MB]. Note: this map was rather poorly folded (6x5 layers) and not flat at all, which made it hard to stitch the indiviudal partial images back together.
  • Map covers area of northern Britain to northwestern Egypt. Map is marked with locations of Egon (Gerät, Gerät + AN, Gerät + A/K), Y-Stellung, Y-Gerät (operational, under construction, planned), Tagjadgenauigkeit, Nachtjagdgenauigkeit, and also boundaries of Zusatzzahlgebiete, Jagdtrapezbegrenzung.
  • Map size: 6x5 (WxH) A4-sheets. Map scale 1:2500000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/9.
  • Ref. 210W: "Flugmeldeeinsatz- und Organisationsplanung", Zeichgs-Nr. 44/20-1-A, GKdos, OKL. Gen.-Nafü, 1. Abt. III. Map is dated 20 June 1944. [file size: 63 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 26 MB]. Note: this map has the same background map as ref. 210V, but with some different mark-ups.
  • Map covers area of northern Britain to northwestern Egypt. Map is marked with locations of Wassermann (L/M/S), Fu.MG (nachtjagdfähig), Mammut, Freya (+ An , + An & Gemse, + An & Kuh, + Kuh & Gemse, + Fahrstuhl), Würzburg (A-D, Riese, Riese + Gema Zusatz), and also boundaries of Zusatzzahlgebiete, Jagdtrapezbegrenzung.
  • Map size: 6x5 (WxH) A4-sheets. Map scale 1:2500000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/9.

External links last checked: January 2019


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