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©2004-2019 F. Dörenberg, unless stated otherwise. All rights reserved worldwide. No part of this publication may be used without permission from the author.


Latest page update: October-November 2019 (uploaded complete map for ref. 210A, added maps ref. 210E-210W, added Fig. 150B).


red-blue line

BERNHARD INSTALLATION BE-9 AT BREDSTEDT (Germany)

Map

Bernhard station Be-9 was located on the "Stollberg" hill, 4 km north-west of Bredstedt in the far north of Germany, right next to the B5 Bundesstraße highway (Reichsstraße R5 at that time). This is ca. 32 km southwest of Flensburg, and half-way between Leck and Husum. With 44 m above sea level, it is one of the highest points in the area (see this interactive topographic map with Be-9 marker). According to ref. 99, this Berhard station had the "Kennbuchstabe" identifier "K", transmitted as part of the compass rose information. However, per §21 in ref. 6, it was the letter "X".

The aerodrome of Leck is about 16 km north of the Bernhard station, and was a Luftwaffe Fliegerhorst built in 1939/40. It became a fighter base mid-1944. Husum, some 11 km south of Be-9, had a small civil aerodrome, Narrenthal, that was built in 1931. In September of 1939, it was expanded into a Luftwaffe Einsatzflugplatz (main operating base): Husum-Schauendahl. Luftwaffe fighters were stationed here full-time, starting May 1942. Nearby Husum-Schwesing was a decoy airfield ("Scheinflugplatz", ref. 119). Fliegerhorst Schleswig (a.k.a. Schleswig-jagel) lies 44 km to the southeast of Be-9, and became operational in 1937. Flensburg-Weiche airfield (a.k.a. Flensburg-Schäferhaus) lies 30 km to the northheast of Be-9, and Westerland/Sylt about 50 km to the northwest. All of these airflied were home to Lufwaffe fighter and/or night-fighter units.

Berhard station

Fig. 149: Be-9 is marked on a Luftwaffe night-fighter navigation chart

(source: ref. 244L)

Berhard station

Fig. 150A: Be-9 is marked on a Luftnachrichten map of July 1944

(source: ref. 210B; note the "t" missing after "Bredsted")

Berhard station

Fig. 150B: Be-9 is marked on Luftwaffe Signal Corps maps dated 15 June 1944

(source: ref. 210D (left) and 210A)

Before the Bernhard station was built at this location, it was the site of FuSAn 721 "Knickebein" station number K2. It was built in 1939 and operational in 1940. "Knickebein" was also a radio-navigation beacon. The "Knickebein" stations in Germany (K2 at Bredstedt, K4 at Kleve, K12 at Maulburg/Lörrach) were all the large version of the system. It had an enormous antenna system: almost 31 m tall (≈100 ft) and 95 m wide (≈300 ft), and could be rotated on a track with a diameter of about 90 m. The small version ("kleine Bauform") of "Knickebein" only stood half as tall and wide as the large version, and had a circular track with a diameter of 31 m. It had a smaller range. Hence, it was used at locations in occupied countries, closer to targets in England. The "Knickebein" antenna could be rotated, so as to point its beam in the direction of the target that was to be bombed. Like the "Bernhard" system, the "Knickebein" antenna system had a central support, and a circular track on a concrete base (though a single track and no locomotives). Both "Knickebein" and "Bernhard" operated in the same frequency range (30-33.3 MHz).

Berhard station

Fig. 152: "Knickebein" K2 under construction at Bredstedt (circular track diameter ca. 90 meters)

(source: Fig. 36 in ref. 181; note the relative size of the man inside the upper left truss)

The following aerial photo shows K2, looking southeast. The tree-lined Reichsstraße R5 to/from Bredstedt crosses behind it. Note the observation tower of the Flugwache (FluWa) in the foreground. The photo above was taken from that tower. This FluWa probably started its activities there in 1933, subordinate to the German navy "flight watch", and was moved to a nearby hill when the Knickebein was constructed (ref. 231). It reported aircraft activity to the Flugwachekommando (Fluko) at the Husum aerodrome.

Berhard station

Fig. 153: Antenna system of the large "Knickebein" nr. K2

(source: ref. 21A, which erroneously identifies it as K4 in Kleve; also see ref. 5B and ref. 110)

This "Knickebein" station was only active for about a year, until British jamming and spoofing became too effective. It was abandoned before mid-1941, at which time the site was guarded by civilians. Mid-1944, the installation was still there (ref. 120), though obviously not operational. This suggests that the Bernhard station at Bredstedt was constructed after the summer of 1944. The concrete ring of the Bernhard beacon was built inside the defunct "Knickebein" circle, off-center. The barracks outside the "Knickebein" circle were all put in place for the "Knickebein". Two brick building were added inside that circle, to support the operation of the "Bernhard" station. After the war, the barracks were used for German refugees from eastern Europe (ref. 120).

Berhard station

Fig. 151: Annotated satellite image of the Stollberg site (ca. 2011)

(at the 10 o'clock position of the circle: modern transmitter tower (TV, FM radio, telecom, cell phone); the dashed blue lines show where the road used to be)

There were living quarters on the north side of the "Knickebein" circle (officers may have been quartered in town), a guard house and a "Wirtschaftsbaracke" (canteen, possibly laundry and washroom facilities) to the northeast. There was an electric power barrack ("Generatorbaracke") about 25 meters to the east of the Bernhard ring. Between the "Wirtschaftsbaracke" and the "Generatorbaracke", there was a light air-raid shelter ("Luftschutzunterstand"), dug out into the ground, and reinforced with a wall made of wooden poles.

Berhard station

Fig. 152: Wooden barracks on the east side of the Knickebein & Bernhard rings, behind wooden fence

(source: R. Grzywatz, used with permission)

The concrete foundation slab for the generator is still visible today:

Berhard station

Fig. 153: The rectangular concrete foundation of the power generator is still still there

(source: ©2008 R. Grzywatz, used with permission)

The standard antenna mast for monitoring of the "Bernhard" transmissions was located in a field, over 500 meters southeast of the Bernhard ring:

Berhard station

Fig. 154: The antenna mast for transmission-monitoring was located over 500 meters southeast of the Bernhard ring


The concrete foundation measured 3 x 3 meters (10x10 ft), the same size as at other Bernhard sites. After the war, a section of the mast was used for a lookout tower at a fox breeding farm in nearby Ost-Bordelumfeld (half way between Bredsted and the Stollberg). The concrete foundation was removed in 2013.

Berhard station

Fig. 155: Concrete foundation of the monitoring-antenna mast (right-hand photo: the mast was partly re-used later)

(source: R. Grzywatz, used with permission)

Each leg of the mast had a triangular base plate of 30.5x30.5 cm (1x1 ft). Each plate was secured to the foundation with two bolts (threaded rebar) of 20mm diameter.

Berhard station

Fig. 156: Mounting bolts for one of the legs of the mast (left), and embedded ground straps (right)

(source: ©2008 R. Grzywatz, used with permission)

A radio mast and associated barracks were located some 250 meters to the northeast of the Knickebein and Bernhard circles (see the satellite image in Fig. 154 above). The mast sticks up through the roof of a large barn, and was disguised as a windmill ("Tarnwindmühle"). See Fig. 157. This was a radio relay station, built after the Knickebein was decommissioned. Basically, it was a range-extender repeater for the voice-broadcast of running commentary of a Y-station of the regional Jägerleitstelle, for vector-guiding fighter aircraft to their target. The wires going to the tower are probably from the local power electrical grid. There were two barracks and a garage barn near the tower. One of the barracks housed the radio equipment racks. A mobile back-up power generator was kept in the garage.  

Berhard station

Fig. 157: The "windmill" VHF radio mast

(source: R. Grzywatz, used with permission)


The British "Air Disarmament Wing" (ADW) moved in, as soon as a Luftwaffe airfield or other installation was captured. Besides disarming and disbanding the Luftwaffe units, their task was to get classified documents (and other items of interest), translate and interpret them, and send them to ADW headquarters or to the Air Ministry in London. The ADW employed Luftwaffe personnel. In the photos below, taken ca. August of 1945, they wear a white "ADW" arm band on their left arm.

Berhard station

Fig. 159: "Wirtschaftsbaracke" (canteen etc.) at far left, electrical power barn at far right, with fake windmill radio tower behind it

(source: Australian War Memorial photo SUK14634 (left; also photo page 5 in ref. 5) & 14632, public domain; ca. August 1945)

In the background of the left-hand photo above: the "Wirtschaftsbaracke" (canteen etc.) at the far left, electrical power barn at the far right, with the fake windmill radio tower behind it. Across the foreground of the right-hand photo is the track of the Knickebein that preceded the Bernhard at this site.

Berhard station

Fig. 160: The "Bernhard" station at Bredstedt

(source: Figure 4.27 in ref. 24)

Note in the photo above and below that the large lower antenna array comprises 4+4 vertical dipole antennas in the front, and only 2+2 in the rear. The original standard configuration also had 4+4 dipoles in the rear.


Berhard station

Fig. 161A: The "Bernhard" station at Bredstedt - May 1945

(photo taken May 1945 by Flt. Lt. Herbert Bennet, RAF Mobile Signals Units of No. 72 Signals Wing; © David Bennet; used with permission)


Berhard station

Fig. 161B: Close-up of the "Bernhard" station at Bredstedt - May 1945

(photo taken May 1945 by Flt. Lt. Herbert Bennet, RAF Mobile Signals Units of No. 72 Signals Wing; © David Bennet; used with permission)


Berhard station

Fig. 162: The German chief engineer (with white ADW armband) of the station explains the details of the system to RAF ADW men

(source: Australian War Memorial photo SUK14633, public domain; ca. August 1945)


Berhard station

Fig. 163: A German engineer describing controls in the cabin of Be-9 to a member of the RAF-ADW

(source: Australian War Memorial photo SUK14636, public domain; ca. August 1945)


Berhard station

Fig. 164: Upper framework of the "Bernhard" antenna system

(source: Australian War Memorial photo SUK14635, public domain; ca. August 1945)


REFERENCES

  • Ref. 5: "Instruments of Darkness: The History of Electronic Warfare, 1939-1945", new ed., Alfred Price, Greenhill Books, 2005, 272 pp., ISBN-10: 1853676160; original edition: William Kimber and Co., Ltd, 1967.
  • Ref. 5A: pp. 236-237; Same as pp. 274-275 in the excellent German translation: "Herrschaft über die Nacht: Spionen jagen Radar", Alfred Price, publ.: Bertelsmann Sachbuchverlag Reinhard Mohn, 1968, 304 pp., ASIN B0000BT35X.
  • Ref. 5B: p. 82 - second of sixteen photo pages.
  • Ref. 6: "G.A.F. Night Fighters - Recent Developments in German Night Fighting" [transcript], Air Ministry, Air Ministry, Assistant Director of Intelligence - Prisoner Interrogation, Wing Cmdr. S.D. Felkin, A.D.I. (K) Report No. 125/1945, January 1945, 18 pp.  [pdf]
  • Ref. 21: "Bordfunkgeräte - vom Funkensender zum Bordradar", Fritz Trenkle, Bernard und Graefe Verlag (publ.), 1986, 283 pp., ISBN 3-7637-5289-7
  • Ref. 21A: photo "Große Knickebein Anlage bei Kleve", p. 108 [note: incorrectly identified by the Trenkle as station K4 at Kleve, instead of K2 at Bredstedt]
  • Ref. 21B: "Drehfunkverfahren", pp. 119-130
  • Ref. 24: p. 200-204 in "Rotating beacons", Section 4.12 of "Radio Aids to Civil Navigation", Reginald Frederick Hansford (ed.), Heywood & Co. Ltd., 1960, 623 pp.
  • Ref. 99 "Völlig in Vergessenheit geraten: Funkanlage bei Buke", Hans-Walter Wichert, in "Die Warte - Heimatzeitschrift für die Kreise Paderborn und Höxter", Nr. 24, December 1979, pp. 14-15, ISSN 0939-8686 (courtesy Mr. R. Gellhaus and H.-W. Wichert)
  • Ref. 110: p. 9 in "The Century of Radar - from Christian Hülsemeyer to Shuttle Radar Topography Mission", Wolfgang Holpp, German Radar Symposium, Bonn, 2002; 2004 update, 27 pp. [pdf] The German version of this article is here.  [pdf]
  • Ref. 119: "1939, Husum wieder Soldatenstadt", Jürgen Dietrich, 8 pp. in "300 Jahre Garnisonsstadt Husum - 50 Jahre Bundeswehrstandort", H. Hünken, H. Sehnert (eds.), 2006, 73 pp.  [pdf]
  • Ref. 120: personal correspondence with R. Grzywatz, February 2014.
  • Ref. 136: "Nachtjagdnavigationskarte - herausgegeben von NJG.3.-NO" [night-fighter navigation chart issued by "Nachtjagdgruppe" 3-NO, the no. 3-NO Night Fighter Group
  • ]Ref. 181: "Drehfunkfeuer System Telefunken - Teil 1: Verfahrensbeschreibung EC1-4262" [Telefunken rotating radio beacon, part 1: description of the method], Adalbert Lohmann, Berlin, October 1942, 129 pp., copy nr. 29, personal copy of Albrecht Leyn [note: this document was never printed, other than a very limited number of personal copies, individually approved by Dept. LC-4 (Technisches Amt) of the RLM; ref. 183]; source: corporate archives of DTM Berlin, part of file nr. I.2.060C-06172  [file size: 62 MB]
  • Ref. 210: Maps (charts) with Luftnachrichten Anlagen (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations) from the Bundesarchiv (BArch) Freiburg/Germany, used in accordance with "Erstinformation für Ihren Besuch im Bundesarchiv in Freiburg, Stand Juni 2016". Note: at the Archive, only free-hand photography is allowed (no tripod, etc.), under sub-obtimal lighting conditions. Also, most of the maps are large, are folded into A4-size (ca. 21x30 cm, ≈8x12 inch), and are not flat when unfolded...
  • Ref. 210A: "Funk-Navigationsanlagen im Reichsgebiet" (radio-navigation stations in the Reich),  Oberkommando der Luftwaffe [OKL] - Generalnachrichtenführer 1- II. Map is dated 15 June 1944. [file size: 65 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here 12 MB],
  • Bernhard stations Be-0, Be-9, B-10, Be-11, and Be-12 are marked on this map. Map size 4x5 A4-size panels.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8 "Ln. Anlagen (Karten)", Bandnr. 2, Teil 2 of "Anlage B, Teil 2: Ln. Anlagen verschiedener Art, Juni - Aug. 1944"
  • Ref. 210B: "Bernhard"-Anlagen im Reichsgebiet"(radio-navigation stations in the Reich), OKL - Generalnachrichtenführer Abt. 1/ II. Map is dated 1 July 1944.  [file size: 24 MB]
  • Bernhard stations Be-0, Be-6, Be-8 through Be-12, and Be-14 through Be-16 are marked on this map. Map size 5x2½ A4-size panels.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210C: "Ln.-Anlagen Westfront" (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations on the western front) . Map is dated 30 August 1944. [file size: 22 MB].
  • Bernhard station Be-6 is marked on this map. Map size 4x3 A4-size panels.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210D: "Funk-Navigationsanlagen Ost-Raum" (radio-navigation installations, eastern area), OKL Generalnachrichtenführer 1. Abt.II. Map is dated 15 June 1944. [file size: 44 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 26 MB]
  • Map is marked with locations of Sonne, Komet, Zyklop, Egon, and Truhe stations. Map size 5x5 A4-size panels.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210E: "Funk-Navigationsanlagen Westraum" (radio-navigation installations, eastern area), OKL - Generalnachrichtenführer 1. Abt. II. Map is dated 15 June 1944. [file size: 83 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 10 MB].
  • Bernhard stations Be-2, Be-6,  Be-8, and Be-10 are marked on this map. Map is marked with locations of Sonne, Knickebein, Komet, Zyklop, Bernhard, Truhe, Erika, Y-(Kampf), Egon (Kampf), Baldur, Peildörfer, Flugsicherungshaupstellen, and Flugsichsrungszentralen.
  • Map size 6x5 A4-sheets (WxH). Map scale is 1:2000000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210F: "Funknavigationsanlagen" (radio-navigation installations), OKL - Generalnachrichtenführer 1. Abt.II Map is dated 1 October 1944. [file size: 107 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 13 MB].
  • Map covers Europe, from mid-Scandinavia down to mid-Italy. Map is marked with locations of Sonne, Zyklop, Egon, Truhe, Bernhard, Y-Kampf, Hermine, Knickebein, Komet, Erika, Flugsicherungs-Zentralen, Flugsicherungshauptstellen. Map size 7x4 A4-sheets (WxH). Map scale 1:200000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13.
  • Ref. 210G: "Flughafen-Bereichskommando (Koflug) 10/XII". Map is not dated.
  • Koflug 10/XII moved to Morlaix/Bretagne in July of 1940; it was dissolved in October of 1944.
  • Bernhard station Be-2 is marked on this map. Map is marked up with Korps- & Divisions-boundaries, Ln.-Anlagen, Flugwachen, Fliegerhorste, Unterstellungen, Armeekorps LXXIV & XXV; map scale 1:500000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 20/310.
  • Ref. 210H: "Kommando des Flughafenbereiches 8/XII (Morlaix)" (Kdo FHB 8-XII). Map is dated 6 July 1944. [file size: 91 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 31 MB].
  • Bernhard station Be-2 is marked on this map. Map covers the western half of Brittany (Bretagne). Map is marked with boundaries at Ln. Korps & Division level; Map scale 1:200000.
  • The original large single-sheet map (ca. 120x105 cm overall size) was divided into 4x5 separate map panels of ca. A4 size, that were glued onto a large sheet of thin gray canvas, and folded.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 20/310.
  • Ref. 210J: Map of FuMG Stellungen in Litauen [Luftwaffe radar sites in Lithuania], Oberkommando der Luftwaffe - Generalnachrichtenführer (O.K.L. Gen.Nafü), 1. Abt. (III). Map is dated 21 July 1944.
  • Flugwachkommandos, Flugmeldezentralen, Luftflottengrenzen also marked on the map. Map scale 1:2500000, Zchs.Nr. 44/46.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/6.
  • Ref. 210K: Map "Ln. Anlagen im Raume Rumänien" (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations in Rumania]). Map is dated 25 August 1944. [file size: 25 MB].
  • Map is marked with locations of FuMG, Funknav. Anlagen, LVerm., Jägerleistellungen. Map size 5x2 A4-sheets (WxH).
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210L: Map "Ln. Anlagen im Raume Bulgarien" (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations in Bulgaria). Map is dated 25 August 1944. [file size: 21 MB]
  • Map is marked with locations of FuMG, Funknav. Anlagen, LVerm., Flugsicherungshaupstellen, Jägerleistellungen. Also, 1 map panel has listing of Luftnachrichtentruppe units present in Bulgaria at that time. Map size 5x2 A4-sheets (WxH).
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210M: "Ln.-Anlagen im Raume Finnland - Übersichtskarte von Nord-Finnland" (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations in Finland). [file size: 34 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 4 MB]. Map is dated 14 October 1944.
  • Map is marked with locations of FuMG, Funknav. Anlagen Sonne, Kzw-Adcock, Luftparke, FMZ, S.u.J.-Stellen, Frontrep. Betriebe, LVerm., Flugsicherungshaupstellen, and Jägerdienste. Map markings include dates of explosive destruction or disassembly ("Sprengung", "Abbau"). Map size 3x2½ A4-sheets (WxH).
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13/K5.
  • Ref. 210N: "Untitled map of northernmost Scandinavia". Map is not dated.
  • Map is marked with location of "Sonne" beacons S-20 at Andö and S-17 at Svanvik, Flugsicherungszentralen "Lofoten", "Polarmeer", nr. 11 at Kemi/Finland. Map scale 1:4000000. Map size 2x1 A4-sheets (WxH).
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13.
  • Ref. 210P: "Ln.-Anlagen Baltikum" (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations in the Baltic area). Map is dated 18 September 1944. [file size: 24 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 3 MB].
  • Map is marked with locations of FuM, LV, and RV-Netz. Map size 2x2 A4-sheets (WxH).
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13/K3.
  • Ref. 210Q: "Ln. Anlagen im Raume Griechenland" (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations in Greece). Map is dated 30 August 1944 - 5 November 1944 [file size: 26 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 4 MB].
  • Map is marked with locations of FuMG, Flugsicherungszentralen, L. Verm., Luftparke, Ln. Gast., Frontrep. Betr., Rep. & Sammelstellen f. Bordfunk Geräte. Map size 4x2 (WxH) A4-sheets.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13.
  • Ref. 210R: Map "Drahtlage Ost" (wired communication links, eastern area). Map is not dated. [file size: 21 MB].
  • Map is marked with line types (DK, Zuspannung, Heereslinie, Fernkabel, I-Kabel, LF-Kabel), LV, Schaltstellen. Scale 1:2500000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/8.
  • Ref. 210S: "I. Flugsicherungsbezirke" (air traffic control districts), OKL. Gen.-Nafü, 1. Abt. II. Map is dated 1 October 1944. [file size: 91 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is is here, 11 MB].
  • Colored map covers area of the southern half of Scandinavia through Greece. A seperate smal map of entire Scandinavia is attached to the back of the map (included). Map is marked with locations of Flugsicherungszentralen, Flugsicherungshauptstellen. Map scale 1:200000. Map size 5x4 (WxH) A4-sheets.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13.
  • Ref. 210T: "I. Flugsicherungsbezirke" (air traffic control districts). Map is dated 1 October 1944. [file size: 17 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 2 MB].
  • Black & white map covers area of the southern half of Scandinavia through Greece. Map is marked with locations of Flugsicherungs-Hauptstellen and Flugsicherungszentralen. Map size: 3x2 (WxH) A4-sheets.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/13.
  • Ref. 210U: "Wassermann-Einsatz und -Planung" (operational and planned Wasserman sites), Zeichgs-Nr. 44/18-1-A, GKdos, OKL. Gen.-Nafü, 1. Abt. III. Map is dated 20 June 1944. [file size: 76 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 8 MB].
  • Map covers area of northern Britain to northwestern Egypt. Map is marked with locations of Wassermann (L/M/S; operational/under construction/planned by Luftflotten, proposed by O.K.L. Gen.Nafü.), Fu.MG (nachtjagdfähig), Jagdschloß, Mammut, Freya (+ An , + An & Kuh, + Kuh & Gemse, + Fahrstuhl), Würzburg (A-D, Riese, Riese + Gema Zusatz).
  • Map size: 6x5 (WxH) A4-sheets. Map scale 1:2500000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/9.
  • Ref. 210V: "Jägermeßstellungen" (radar sites for fighter intercept guidance), Zeichgs-Nr. 44/17-2-A, GKdos, OKL. Gen.-Nafü, 1. Abt. III. Map is dated 20 June 1944. [file size: 61 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 25 MB]. Note: this map was rather poorly folded (6x5 layers) and not flat at all, which made it hard to stitch the indiviudal partial images back together.
  • Map covers area of northern Britain to northwestern Egypt. Map is marked with locations of Egon (Gerät, Gerät + AN, Gerät + A/K), Y-Stellung, Y-Gerät (operational, under construction, planned), Tagjadgenauigkeit, Nachtjagdgenauigkeit, and also boundaries of Zusatzzahlgebiete, Jagdtrapezbegrenzung.
  • Map size: 6x5 (WxH) A4-sheets. Map scale 1:2500000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/9.
  • Ref. 210W: "Flugmeldeeinsatz- und Organisationsplanung", Zeichgs-Nr. 44/20-1-A, GKdos, OKL. Gen.-Nafü, 1. Abt. III. Map is dated 20 June 1944. [file size: 63 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 26 MB]. Note: this map has the same background map as ref. 210V, but with some different mark-ups.
  • Map covers area of northern Britain to northwestern Egypt. Map is marked with locations of Wassermann (L/M/S), Fu.MG (nachtjagdfähig), Mammut, Freya (+ An , + An & Gemse, + An & Kuh, + Kuh & Gemse, + Fahrstuhl), Würzburg (A-D, Riese, Riese + Gema Zusatz), and also boundaries of Zusatzzahlgebiete, Jagdtrapezbegrenzung.
  • Map size: 6x5 (WxH) A4-sheets. Map scale 1:2500000.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/9.
  • Ref. 231: "Flugwache Turm auf dem Stollberg / Bredstedt", R. Grzywatz, 22 April 2019, 1 p.
  • Ref. 244: Luftwaffe fighter intercept & control methods ("Jagdverfahren"), maps, and related topics
  • Ref. 244A: "Nachtjagd" [intro, descriptions, and evaluations], Luftwaffe document, date unknown, 18 pp. Source: German Russian Project for digitization of archives in the Russian Federation. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  • Ref. 244B: "Bestimmungen über Nachtjagd" [descriptions of methods, and instructions to Flak organisation regarding night fighting], 1st Flakdivision, Berlin, 19 November 1943, 12 pp. Source: German Russian Project for digitization of archives in the Russian Federation. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  • Ref. 244C: "Mosquito Nachtjagd", [specific fighter and flak tactics against incoming British "Mosquito" fighter-bombers] 1st Flakdivision, Berlin, 7 March 1944, 5 pp. Source: German Russian Project for digitization of archives in the Russian Federation. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  • Ref. 244D: "Das Y-verfahren für Tag- und Nachtjagd" [file size: 115 MB; good-but-lower-reslution file is here 36 MB], document without reference number, without date, without place, 113 pp. 
  • Complete description of the "Y" procedure for day & night fighter control from ground plotting stations with short wave equipment.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 2-V/38, used in accordance with "Erstinformation für Ihren Besuch im Bundesarchiv in Freiburg, Stand Juni 2016".
  • Ref. 244E: "Anlage 1 zu Luftflottenführungsabteilung Ia op2 Nr. 500/41 geh." [file size: 28 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 4 MB]. Map is not dated.
  • Map covers area of Belgium, The Netherlands, Denmark, northern Germany incl. Berlin. Map is marked with locations of militärische Sperrgebiete, Nachtsperrgebiete, Nachtjagdgebiete, Dunkle Nachtjagdsräume.
  • Map size: 4x2 (WxH) A4-sheets. Map is low-quality blueprint copy.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 20/186/K.
  • Ref. 244F: "Einsatzbeispiel für einen Feindeinflug" (example of response to intruding enemy aircraft). Map is not dated. [file size: 84 MB; good-but-lower-resolution file is here, 10 MB].
  • Map shows ground track of enemy bomber stream arriving from Britain with target Frankfurt, intercepting fighters, timing, etc. Map includes large & detailed table of the entire nightfighter intercept process, from long-range radar detection to "kill", with step-by-step status/activity/communication at the level of Flugmeldekompanie, Nachtjagdraum, Fühlungshalter, Jagdgruppe, Flugmeldungszentrale, Fluko, and Flak; the entire sequence covers 1 hr 40 min.
  • Map size: 4x5 (WxH) A4-sheets.
  • Source: BArch file nr. (Signatur) RL 36/443.
  • Ref. 244G: "Luft-Navigationskarte in Merkatorprojektion - Erweitertest Blatt Deutschland mit Jägernetz", Bodenorganisation Großraum-Nachtjagd Luftflotte Reich, July 1944. Source: Bestand/File 500, Findbuch/Index 12452, Akte/record 286 of the German-Russian Project for the Digitization of German Documents in Archives of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  • Ref. 244H: "Nederland en de Duitse Nachtjacht - Van jager tot prooi" (The Netherlands and German night fighting - from hunter to prey), W.H. Lutgert, R. de Winter, pp. 536- 545 in "Militaire Spectator", vol. 183, nr. 12, December 1994. Accessed September 2019. [pdf]
  • Ref. 244J: "Nederland en de Duitse Nachtjacht - Van jager tot prooi (Deel 2)" (The Netherlands and German night fighting - from hunter to prey - part 2), W.H. Lutgert, R. de Winter, pp. 5-17 in "Militaire Spectator", vol. 184, nr. 1, January 1995. Accessed September 2019. [pdf]
  • Ref. 244K: "De Luftwaffe en Nederland - Balans van een oorlogserfenis" (The Luftwaffe and The Netherlands - legacy of a war), W.H. Lutgert, R. de Winter, pp. 450- 459 in "Militaire Spectator", vol. 184, nr. 10, October 1995. Accessed September 2019. [pdf]
  • Ref. 244L: "Nachtjagdnavigationskarte - herausgegeben von NJG.3.-NO" [night-fighter navigation chart issued by the Nachrichten-Offizier of the no. 3 night fighter-wing, Nachtjagdgeschwader 3]. [file size: 25 MB]
  • Map is not dated. Bernhard-stations Be-0, Be-6, Be-8 through Be-12 are also marked on this map. Source: collection R. Grywatz.

External links last checked: January 2019


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