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INTRODUCTION

Note: this page contains more than 250 photos and diagrams! It may take a while before they have all been downloaded. Please be patient!

The FuSAn 724/725 "Bernhard" system is the ground-station ("Stellung", "Anlage") of the "Bernhard/Bernhardine" radio-navigation system, used by the Luftwaffe in WW2, primarily for nightfighters. The beacon-station comprises a large rotating antenna system (ca. 25 x 35 meter). The FuG 120 "Bernhardine" is the associated Hellschreiber-printer and control electronics that were used in the aircraft. It printed the antenna-azimuth data transmitted by a "Bernhard" station.

Berhard station

Figure-1: The "Bernhard" ground-station of the "Bernhard/Bernhardine" radio-navigation system

(click here to get full size)

To provide coverage over a large part of western and central Europe, and allow triangulation, a chain of 17 "Bernhard" ground stations was constructed between late-1941 and the end of the war (ref. 2, 74, 96, 177, 179). Obviously, the stations were installed on a high point in the area, typically a hill top. Each Bernhard ground station ("Stellung") had a "Be" identifier number. In addition, the (operational) ground stations had a single-letter identifier ("Kennbuchstabe") that was used in the compass rose (azimuth) information transmitted in Hellschreiber format. I do not know the mapping between these identifier letters and the corresponding Bernhard stations. Ref. 99 suggests that "K" stood for the Bredstedt station in Schleswig-Holstein (the reference actually mentions the town of Leck as the location, 14 km (9 mi) further north). However, per ref. 6, the Bredstedt station had the identifier "X"...

Berhard station

Figure-2: Location of "Bernhard" FuSAn 724/725 ground stations, with 400 km range rings

(range rings are not corrected for projection of the map - they should be slightly oval north-south)

I was able to confirm the location of most Be-numbers with the aid of WW2 charts of the Luftwaffe Radio Corps (Luftnachrichten) and charts for night-fighter navigation (Nachtjagdnavigation). But it was not until several years later, in April 0f 2017, that I could finally compile the complete and consistent list, based on billing information from the company that built and installed the antenna systems ("Hein, Lehmann & Co.", ref. 177), and 1944 presentation notes to the General-Nachriuchtenführer (ref. 179).

The map below shows the location of these stations. The above bold-faced location names are used. Special thanks goes to Gérard Chatry, for helping me precisely locate some of the stations and gather information on a number of them. A file with station coordinates (both in decimal degrees and degrees-minutes-seconds) is here.

Berhard station

Table-1: List of Bernhard stations


Cost (in 1941/42 RM --> 2017 € (abt 1:4???) & US$): main antenna system, monitoring mast, armored protection ("Panzerung" Panzerholz = plywood, metal clad / covered with sheet metal on one side or both sides) of the wooden cabin.

The Bernhard stations were constructed between late 1941 and the end of the war. Note that quite a number of the stations were still under construction by the end of the war, and never entered into service. It would make sense that the location and associated numbering of the stations was based on perceived (future) air-defence needs. This could explain why the lower Be-numbers roughly coincide with the Atlantic Wall coastal defence (some 12000 bunkers and other constructions, against a British invasion). Be-0 near Berlin makes sense: Berlin was the capital, seat of the Reichsluftfahrtministerium, there were Luftwaffe research establishments and test-sites in the area, as well as the companies instrumental in radio-navigation systems (Lorenz, Telefunken,...).

Construction of the station at Aidlingen started late in the war (1944), so this may have been station Be-13. The equipment of the Arcachon station was moved to Buke. Reconstruction there was completed just before arrival of the US troops. Though the transmitter-disk with the identifier letter (callsign) of Arcachon may have been reused at Buke, the Buke station must have had its own allocated Be-number and letter.

The stations at Aidlingen, Plzeň, and Hornstein were also never completed. The Germans dismantled the station at Trebnitz just before it was completed - ahead of the advancing Russian troops. Five stations in France were completed by September of 1944: Be-1, Be-2, Be-6, Be-7, and Be-14 (ref. 98). According to ref. 8, only three stations were still operational at the end of the war: Trebbin, Bredstedt, and Thisted; only the last two had text-messaging capability - a unique feature of the Bernhard/Bernhardine system!

Note that some sources claim that more than 17 stations existed. This is not supported by Luftnachrichten (German Signal Corps) charts and Nachtjagdnavigationskarten (night-fighter nav charts), nor archeological evidence. To some extent, this claim may caused by the fact that all stations are referred to by multiple names.

Below is an interactive map with the same station locations. In practically all cases, you can fully zoom-in the satellite image map, and see the actual the remains of the station structures. Click on any marker icon, to get the associated information. You can click-and-drag the map with your mouse, and zoom in & out with your mouse-wheel (or use the buttons in the bottom left-hand corner of the map).

Figure-3: Interactive map with location of the Bernhard stations

(you must enable maps.googleapis.com in your browser; click here for a larger view of this map in a separate window)


The map below shows the map of "Bernhard" locations, overlaid with the location of airfields used by the Luftwaffe (at some point in time during the war) and the RAF. It also shows a number of German defence lines and areas:

  • the German Atlantic Wall ("Atlantikwall") of coastal defences; it ran from the top of Norway, all the way down to Spain
  • Air Defence Zone West ("Luftverteidingszone", LVZ). It was supposed to be fully implemented in 1942, but was never completed. Establishment of Zone "East" was not ordered until weeks before the end of the war (ref. 132C).
  • Night-fighter defence line. It was referred to as the "Kammhuber Line" by the British and US intelligence services.
  • Combined Night-fighter areas ("kombinierte Nachtjagd" (KONAJA) Räume). HENAJA ("Helle Nachtjagd") was another night-fighter control method. Enemy bombers were captured & tracked with radar, and illuminated with radar-controlled search lights. Fighter aircraft were then guided by fighter control, to intercept the bomber. Ref. 132G. In the KONAJA system, the HENAJA system was combined with local anti-aircraft gun sites (Flugzeugabwehrkanone, "FLAK").

Berhard station

Figure-5: Location of "Bernhard" stations, airfields and defence lines (airfield locations are approximate)

(sources of airfield and air defence data: ref. 132)

On maps of the Luftnachrichten Signal Corps, radio-navigation ground-stations are marked with a square box that has a lightning bolt emanating from the top. The bolt indicates that it is a transmitter. The type of navigation system is indicated by one or two letters inside the box. The station number is marked below the square box, except for the "Y" systems. The "Bernhard" beacons are marked with the letters "Be".

Bernhard map symbols

Map symbols for some Luftwaffe radio-navigation installations


The next sections show many photos (some in 3D) of the various Bernhard sites. I have personally visited the remains of the stations at Venusberg/Aidlingen, Teste-de-Buch/Archachon, St.-Michel-Mont-Mercure/Pouzauges, and Buke.


BERNHARD INSTALLATION BE-0 AT TREBBIN/GLAU (Germany)

Map

Be-0 is the first installation that became operational: September of 1941 (p. 85 in ref. 2). It is located in a wooded area between the villages of Glau and Mietgendorf, about 5 km to the northwest of the town of Trebbin, and 35 km southwest of down-town Berlin. It is 400 meters northeast of the building complex of "Friedensstadt" ("Piece-Town") in Glau, a large social-religious estate that was built in the 1920s. The organization was banned in 1935. The estate was confiscated, and taken over by the Waffen-SS late 1938. The SS operated an artillery school there (starting late 1941), and also Department 8 (Amt 8, "Forschung, Entwicklung, Patente"; R&D and patents) of the SS head-office. The estate resumed its original functions in 1994.

This is also one of the sites where Telefunken conducted tests in 1940 of the 300 MHz UHF predecessor (20 watt transmitters) of the eventual 30 MHz HF/VHF Bernhard system. Ref. 3, 85C, 101.

Berhard station

Be-0 is marked on a Luftwaffe night-fighter navigation chart

(source: ref. 136)

Berhard station

The "Bernhard" installation at Trebbin

(source: ref. 97)

Berhard station

The Bernhard ring is visible at the yellow arrow; the "Friedenstadt" building complex is visible along the bottom of the photo

(source: 1945 aerial photos K0-1645-4133 & -4134, US government = no © )

Berhard station

The above aerial photo - zoomed-in on the fenced-in Bernhard site


Berhard station

Satellite image of the same area (ca. 2012)

(imagery: ©2012 DigitalGlobe, GeoBasis-DE/BKG, Geocontent, GeoEye; Map data © 2012 GeoBasis-DE/BKG, Google)

Berhard station

Topographic map of the same area

(the interactive topo map is here)

Berhard station

Satellite image of the same area - zoomed-in


Berhard station

Concrete slab of ca. 6.5 x 3.5 meter, only 2-3 meters outside the ring (east side, see satellite image above)

(source: © U. Stelzer; used with permission)

Berhard station

Aerial photo of the same area

(source: © A. Ladenthin; used with permission)

Berhard station

Remnants of the Bernhard-ring at Trebbin

(source: ©2010 Jacek Durych; used with permission)

Berhard station

Every other rail tie is narrow and had a wedge-shaped block on for the inside track

(source: © U. Stelzer; used with permission)

Berhard station

Two different sets of ties, with different widths; this concrete ring measures only about 30 cm in height

(source: © A. Ladenthin; used with permission)

Berhard station

The base plates on the wide ties have a width of 16 cm, the narrow ties are about 7 cm wide

(source: © A. Ladenthin/H. Bergmann; used with permission)

Berhard station

The ties are sections of I-beam, embedded into the concrete ring

(source: © A. Ladenthin/H. Bergmann; used with permission)

About 3.5 km (≈2.2 mi) east of the Be-0 location, near the village of Großbeuthen, there is a round building that looks just like the standard round building at the center of all "Bernhard" rings:

Berhard station

The look-alike building, just south of Großbeuthen

(source: ©2016 B. Saalfeld; used with permission)

However, it is larger: the roof has a diameter of about 6 m (≈20 ft), compared to the standard 4.5 m (≈15 ft). The inside diameter of the building is 4 m (≈13 ft), with a wall thickness of 40 cm (≈16"). The floor-to-ceiling height is 2.7 m (≈9 ft). It does have four support columns (that appear to be brick, rather steel I-beams), three windows, and a brick wall. The roof is reinforced with four sections of steel beam that join at the center of the roof. However, here is no hole at the center of the roof, for a ball bearing and shaft to a superstructure. The 1.9 m tall door opening is much larger, and entirely above ground: there are no steps down to the floor of the building.

Berhard station

The inside of the look-alike building

(source: ©2016 B. Saalfeld; used with permission)

The purpose of this building is unknown. Given its striking similarity with the "Bernhard" building, it may have served (e.g., by Telefunken) as the base for testing of a radio beacon. According to an eyewitness account, there was an "installation" on the roof, shortly after the war (WW2). However, at this point, there are no accounts or documentary evidence that establishes whether it is a war-time or post-war building...

Berhard station

The door opening and a satellite image of the roof

(source: ©2016 B. Saalfeld; used with permission)

On top of the roof, there is an octagon (about 2.6 m across) that is made of crudely cemented bricks. One side of the octagon is open. At each corner, there is a heavy mounting plate with bolts sticking up, for an 8-legged superstructure. Two steel plates protrude from the center of the roof.

Berhard station

Octagonal structure on top of the roof - satellite image at right

(source: ©2016 B. Saalfeld; used with permission)

There are two metal tubes that enter the building near ground level. One has the remains of a multi-strand cable with aluminium wires. There are no remnants or traces of other structures nearby.

Berhard station

The two cable entries and the multi-strand cable

(source: ©2016 B. Saalfeld; used with permission)


BERNHARD INSTALLATION BE-1 AT FAVIÈRES (France, dept. 28)

Map

This Bernhard site is located on a plateau at a height of about 250 m ASL (see this interactive topographic map). The nearest large(r) city is Chartres, 20 km to the southeast. Down-town Paris lies 88 km to the northeast. Nearby Luftwaffe airfields were Chartres, Dreux (22 km to the northeast), and Châteaudun (54 km to the south). It is Be-1 according to ref. 130.

The "radar" and associated AA-guns ("FLAK") were attacked by P-38s of the USAF 401st Fighter Squadron, on 13 August 1944. Ref. 89.


Berhard station

Be-1 is marked on a 1944 Luftnachrichten (Luftwaffe Radio Corps) chart of northwestern France


Berhard station

Aerial photo of the Favières site (14-April-1949)

(source: geoportal.gouv.fr; full-size photo C18-011_1949_F1816-2116_0146, 9 MB)


Berhard station

Satellite image of the Favières site (ca. 2012)

(source: geoportal.gouv.fr)

The satellite image above clearly shows a fenced-in area with a cluster of buildings - and the Bernhard ring. This is the Centre Spécialisé des Télécommunications et de l'Informatique (C.S.T.E.I), a satellite and HF radio communications center of the French army. The 2006 C.S.T.E.I. brochure of the French army (ref. 113) calls it a German "radar", and states that it dates back to 1942 - which is consistent with the low "Be" station number.

Berhard station

The above satellite image zoomed-in, Bernhard ring and the round building at its center clearly visible


Berhard station

The destroyed Bernhard installation at Favières - summer of 1944

(source: ref. 90C; original image: NARA = US gov't = no ©)


BERNHARD INSTALLATION BE-2 AT MT.-ST.-MICHEL-DE-BRASPARTS (France, dept. 29)

Map

Mont-Saint-Michel-de-Brasparts is the highest point (394 ASL) of the Monts d'Arrée chain of hills in Brittany. It is also referred to as "Menez-Mikael-ar-Mor" or simply "Menez-Mikael" (sometimes spelled "Menez-Mikel") in breton - the celtic language spoken in Brittany. The "new" chapel dates from 1795.

The concrete ring has been filled in, up to the top of the round building in the middle. There are still remnants of at least a dozen concrete and stone structures within a 100 m radius of the concrete ring (bunkers, barracks, storage sheds, water reservoirs, machine gun platforms, etc). Ref. 106.

The 360º view from the round central building is fully unobstructed, as shown in this YouTube video clip. Also see this interactive topographic map. The site is located about 39 km [25 miles] southeast of Brest and 27 km [17 miles] south-southwest of Morlaix.

Berhard station

Be-2 during its construction

(© J. Fastner; used with permission)

Berhard station

German maps marked up with "Bernhard 2" for Mt-St-Michel-de-Brasparts

(source: ref. 90B (left), 90D (right); both used with permission; map symbols: ref. 90E)

The Central Interpretation Unit (C.I.U) of the British Air Ministry discovered the Bernhard-station "near Morlaix" (i.e., Mt.-St.-Michel-de-Brasparts) in RAF aerial photos taken during August and September of 1942 (ref. 172A, ref. 174A). At the time, the installation appeared to be under construction: operating quarters had not yet been constructed (or were camouflaged or underground). The "superstructure is rotatable, as trolley wheels are visible at each end of it". A cable trench runs in the direction of 284° to a short mast "possibly for monitoring purposes". Ref. 174G. The Interpretation Report gives the length of the trench as about 950 ft [290 m], though in the aerial photo it is actually 0.6 miles [920 m]. The 3x3 m concrete mast foundation is still there (see inset satellite image). The Report also overestimated the size of the concrete ring: 98 ft [30 m] instead of 71 ft [21.5 m].

Berhard station

Overhead RAF aerial photo no. 54 of the Mont-Saint-Michel-de-Brasparts site (24 Sept 1942)

(source: ref. 174G; dashed yellow line marks cable trench to the mast foundation; source satellite image: geoportail.gouv.fr)

Berhard station

1 = concrete ring of "Bernhard", 2 = bunker/shelter, 3 = anchors for radio antenna guy-wires, 4 = trench, 5 = power generator bunker, 6 = water cisterns, 7 = baracks, 8 = small bunker (possibly radio), 9 = anchors for radio antenna guy-wires, 10 = ammo storage niches, 11, 13-15 = dug-out for gun/canon, 12 = small stone bunker, 16 = 17th century chapel

Satellite image of the Be-2 site (ca. 2011) - remnants from German structures marked up

(image source: geoportail.gouv.fr; markup source: ref. 106 ,106A)


Berhard station

Postcard of the Bernhard site at Mont-Saint-Michel-de-Brasparts (late 1940s / early 1950s?)

(source unknown; foundations of German buildings to the right of the ring)


Berhard station

Aerial photo of the Bernhard site at Mont-Saint-Michel-de-Brasparts, looking northeast

(photo: © F. Le Mouillour; used with permission)


Berhard station

Aerial photo of the Bernhard site at Mont-Saint-Michel-de-Brasparts, looking northeast

(photo: © F. Le Mouillour; used with permission)

In 1946, the antenna installation was sold to a scrap metal trader from nearby Brest:

Berhard station

Newspaper clipping reporting the final demolition of the Bernhard antenna installation

(source unknown, probably the "Le Télégramme de Brest et de l'Ouest" regional newspaper)


Berhard station

The ring, completely filled in and covered

(photo: ©2012 G. Chatry; used with permission)

Circa 2013, local authorities decided to "beautify" the site. To the extent practicable, German remnants around the concrete ring have been removed or covered up. The round central building used to have a square concrete block on top of it (see photos above). This block covered the shaft opening through the center of the round concrete roof of that structure. These days, a much larger, cylindrical concrete block covers the square block (see photo below). There are no signs posted anywhere around the site, to mention its WW2 history, or even the history of the chapel...

Berhard station

The top of the central round building, now with a large cylindrical concrete block on top of it

(photo: ©2014 G. Chatry; used with permission)


BERNHARD INSTALLATION BE-3 AT LE-BOIS-JULIEN (France, dept. 62)

Map

The Bernhard station at Le-Bois-Julien is located ca. 35 km south of Calais and ca. 18 km southeast of Boulogne-sur-Mer. This only 64 km (40 miles) southeast of Dover, England! There is no other high ground between the station and the Channel. This site is also referred to as Mont Violette - Desvres. However, Mont Violette is a hill about 10 km southwest of the town of Desvres, whereas Le-Bois-Julien is actually 3.5 km to the southeast of Desvres. Knickebein station K6 was located 10 km west of Be-3, at Bois-de-la-Motte.

There were several Luftwaffe airfields in the region, with fighter squadrons, e.g.:

  • Desvres, 3.5 km to the northwest
  • St. Omer, 33 km to the east-northeast
  • Wissant, 30 km to the northwest
  • Calais (multiple), 35 km to the north
  • Abbeville, 60 km to the south

The street that now leads to the Bernhard site is called "Impasse du radar", that is: "radar alley"...

The British discovered this station mid-April 1942: aerial photos showed the ring, the cabin across the ring, and the monitoring antenna mast at an estimated 600 yards [550 m]. Photos of mid-June 1942 showed addition of the upper antenna array. Ref. 172A. In RAF aerial photos of June 1942, the station comprised the ring-with-turntable with an (incorrectly) estimated diameter of 98 ft [30 m, instead of 21.5 m = 71 ft], two underground shelters, and a group of huts. The largest huts measured an estimated 175x70 ft [53x21] and 70x63 ft [21x19 m]. An underground cable ran 700 yards [640 m] eastward to a small transformer house, and from there to local power-grid along a north-south road 1.7 km east of the station. In photos of mid-November 1942, small additions were noted, as well as trench. Ref. 174D-174F.

The French resistance explicitly reported in 1943 that this station rotated not twice, but only once per minute (p. 62 in ref. 91). A British 10 cm [ = 300 MHz] radar station at Fairlight (on the East Sussex coast, east of Hastings, 87 km [54 miles] northwest of Le-Bois-Julien) also concluded that the station appeared to rotate once a minute (ref. 173B). Likewise, extensive radar measurements early-June 1944 also determined a rotation period of 52-60 sec (ref. 173A). However, the official manual of the FuG 120 printer system clearly states that the system rotated twice per minute (see top of Section B on p. 5 in ref. 15). Moreover, the printers were not compatible with antenna rotational speeds that deviated more than a couple of percent from the nominal speed.

 Berhard station

Aerial photo of the Le-Bois-Julien site (3 November 1943)

(source: US government = no copyright; severe perspective distortion corrected by me)

Berhard station

RAF overhead aerial photo of the Le-Bois-Julien site (20 June 1942)

(source: ref. 174F)

Berhard station

RAF overhead aerial photo of the Le-Bois-Julien site (10 November 1942)

(source: ref. 174D)

Berhard station

Aerial photo of the Le-Bois-Julien site (5 October 1947)

(source: geoportal.gouv.fr; full-size photo C2104-0061_1947_F2104-2304_0087, 9 MB)


Berhard station

Satellite image of the Le-Bois-Julien site (ca. 2011)


Berhard station

The round building at the center of the concrete ring

(photo ©2006 T. Oliviers, used with permission)


Berhard station

Ceiling of the round building - the mounting brackets have found a new purpose in life!

(photo ©2006 T. Oliviers, used with permission)

Since the two photos above were taken, the door has been replaced. Also, a mast has been installed on the round hut at the center of the ring. The cantilever boom at the bottom of the mast extends beyond the concrete ring.

Berhard station

Entrance to the round central structure

(photo ©2009 H. Adriaanse bunkersite.com; used with permission)

Berhard station

A side-view of the round building

(photo ©2009 H. Adriaanse bunkersite.com; used with permission)

Berhard station

The back side of the round building

(photo ©2009 H. Adriaanse bunkersite.com; used with permission)

The inside rail of the circular track is slightly raised. Two out of every three rail ties has bolts for a rail-chair (clamp) on the inside rail. Every third tie has a rail-support block without bolts.

Berhard station

The rail ties are embedded in the top of the concrete ring - the inside rail is raised with blocks

(photo ©2009 H. Adriaanse bunkersite.com; used with permission)

Berhard station

The rail ties (I-beams) are embedded in the top of the concrete ring - the inside rail (top) is slightly raised

(photo ©2009 H. Adriaanse bunkersite.com; used with permission)


Berhard station

Some of the rail-chairs are still present - here on the inside rail of the track

(photo ©2009 H. Adriaanse bunkersite.com; used with permission)


BERNHARD INSTALLATION BE-4 AT LA PERNELLE (France, dept. 50)

Map

The village of La Pernelle is located about 20 km due east of the port of Cherbourg. The Bernhard site is at a relatively high point (108 m ASL), with a completely unobstructed view of the Bay of the Seine and the English Channel. Utah Beach is app. 23 km (15 mi) to the southeast. It is only about 130 km (≈80 mi) south of Portsmouth/England. There were two cannon batteries nearby (ref. 108): "La Pernelle I" (400-500 m to the northeast) and "La Pernelle II" (ca. 800 m to the southwest). There was a command post of Heeresküstenartillerie Regiment 1261 (HKAR; coastal artillery regiment) near the church. There were also two radar stations nearby.

Construction of this installation started in 1941 (ref. 128). The French resistance reported that this Bernhard station rotated once a minute, instead of the standard twice a minute (ref. 91). Luftwaffe POWs in the UK reported this for the Bernhard system in general (§19 in ref. 6). The antenna structure of this station is reported as having grey-black camouflage colors (ref. 128).

The French resistance in February attempted acts of sabotage in February of 1943 (ref. 128). For British 1944 aerial reconnaissance photos of this Bernhard station (in preparation for Operation Overlord - the invasion of France): see ref. 109. The Germans abandoned this site in June of 1944, shortly after the invasion.

Berhard station

Luftnachrichten map refers to La Pernelle as "Be-4"

(source: large map - ref. 90A; map inset - ref. 90B, used with permission)

Note that the same Ln-Gerätestellungen map incorrectly places the longwave hyperbolic beacon "Erika-2" near Sainte-Mère-Eglise (about 23 km south of La Pernelle), instead of near Saint-Pierre-Eglise (about 9 km northwest of La Pernelle)...

Berhard station

RAF low-altitude oblique photo of La Pernelle - taken off shore, over the surf (31 March 1943)

("Bernhard" installation vaguely visible on the horizon; source: ref. 174J)

In an RAF aerial photo of 4 August 1941, the La Pernelle site is identified as an "area of suspicious activity". At that time, no "Bernhard" construction is visible. In photos from early October 1941, a large white circular patch is noted, as well the construction of a cable trench and several huts. Construction appears to have been interrupted from late-October 1941 to mid-April 1942, at which time the site is fenced in. The monitoring mast is discovered in photos of mid-September 1942. Ref. 172A.

Berhard station

RAF aerial photo of the La Pernelle site, area of "suspicious activity" before "Bernhard" construction (4 Aug 1941)

(the area is marked by the white half circle; source: ref. 172A)

Bernhard station

Satellite image of the La Pernelle site (ca. 2014)

(source: geoportal.gouv.fr)

Berhard station

Low-altitude oblique RAF aerial photo of the La Pernelle site, looking northwest (3 March 1943)

(source: ref. 172A; cropped photo used in ref. 118; photo by G.R. Crankenthorp)

Berhard station

RAF aerial photo, "Bernhard" station and alleged position of the monitoring mast marked by circles (22 Dec 1942)

(source aerial photo: ref. 172A)

There were two FLAK-protected radar stations in the same area: one ca. 700 m to the northeast (just to the north of the "La Pernelle I" cannon battery), and one ca. 1.2 km to the northwest. They may both have been of type Würzburg-Riese (FuMO 214) and operated by the 2nd Marine Funkmeß Abteilung (ref. 128), or one Würzburg Riese and a Mammut G III (FuMO 51) radar.

Berhard station

Aerial photo of the La Pernelle area - overlaid with the location of Be-7, radars and canon batteries

(photo dated 25 July 1946)

Berhard station

The La Pernelle station

(source: ref. 107)

Berhard station

Oblique views: looking towards southwest (left) & southeast (right), 1944)

(source: left image NARA ( = US government = no ©), right image p. 4.09 in ref. 13)

A 3D (stereoscopic) image of the La Pernelle site (based on the right-hand image above) is here.

Berhard station

Overhead views: of the Bernhard site at La Pernelle

(left image: presumably 1944, source unknown; right image: source unknown)

Berhard station

Aerial photo of the La Pernelle site - many bomb craters in the area

(dated 25 July 1946; source: geoportal.gouv.fr; full size photo C1110-0091_1947_F1110-1310_0130)

The aerial photo below has been overlaid with map information from May 1944. It shows that the installation was surrounded by barbed wire fences (small yellow x's) and was protected by a FLAK-gun. The electrical power generator was located just across the road to the east of the Bernhard station. Local terrain height is 108 m.

Berhard station

Aerial photo of the La Pernelle site (25 July 1946) - overlaid with map from May 1944

(photo source: geoportal.gouv.fr; full size photo C1110-0091_1947_F1110-1310_0130; map source: ref. 108)


Berhard station

The damaged Bernhard station at La Pernelle

("Captured Nazi radar equipment somewhere in France, 6 July 1944", source: US government = no copyright)

Berhard station

Views of the damaged and dismantled Bernhard - for some reason, the four corner sheds are still intact

(sources: unknown; right image presumably 1946)


1946 film clip of the German "radar" at La Pernelle

(Bernhard part begins 20 sec after start of clip; source: Cinémathèque de Normandie)


Berhard station

Aerial photo of the La Pernelle site - 22-April-1955

(source: geoportal.gouv.fr; full-size photo C1110-0081_1955_F1110-1310_0098)

Berhard station

The concrete ring

(source: ©2013 J. Flaherty atlantikwall.org.uk; used with permission)

Berhard station

The concrete ring

(source: ©2013 J. Flaherty atlantikwall.org.uk; used with permission)

Berhard station

Remnant of the round building at the center of the ring - two of the four I-beam corner posts visible

(source: ©2013 J. Flaherty atlantikwall.org.uk; used with permission)

The photo below shows a concrete sidewall at the entrance to the above round structure. It has three slots in it. Their function is unclear. The bottom slot appears to have part of a wooden board stuck in it. It is unclear if the sidewall on the opposite side of the entrance also has such slots (that section of the sidewall appears to be missing).

Berhard station

Slots in the concrete side wall on the right-hand side of the entrance to the round building

(©2011 bunkerpictures.nl; used with permission)

Berhard station

Top of the concrete ring

(©2011 bunkerpictures.nl; used with permission)

The photo below shows a rectangular concrete slab against the south side of the concrete ring. It corresponds to the rectangular protrusion in the top-view diagram below. Its purpose is unclear. There is an opening in the concrete ring on the east side, next to the steps that lead down to the round building. The building with the electrical generator was across the street from this side of the ring, see the aerial photo with map overlay further above.

Berhard station

Rectangular concrete slab on the south side of the concrete ring

(©2011 bunkerpictures.nl; used with permission)

Berhard station

(source: figure 17 and 18 in ref. 108)

Berhard station

Two plaques near the Bernhard ring at La Pernelle

(©2011 bunkerpictures.nl; used with permission)

There are two plaques near the Bernhard ring, see photos above. They make several claims - several of which are "questionable":

  • This "radar" installation was built late 1941 (this appears to be rather early; no Be-stations were built before late 1941. Be-2 was built in 1942).
  • The antenna measured 25x25 m and weighed 75 tons (the antenna system was actually closer to 35 m wide; also, the weight is generally listed as 100 or 120 tons)
  • The cabin on the bridge of the antenna housed transmitter equipment, beds, and an office.
  • The antenna system was rotated by a central motor via four peripheral drive units (incorrect: the system was rotated by four electric locomotives).
  • Nearby was a transformer station, a storage shed, and a medical unit.


Berhard station

Plaque in the village of La Pernelle

(image adapted to better fit this page)


BERNHARD INSTALLATION BE-5 AT ST.-MICHEL-MT.-MERCURE (France, dept. 85)

Map

Mid-May 2011, I visited the site at Saint-Michel-Mont-Mercure (off the D755 road, 9 km northwest of Pouzauges, 3 km northwest of St.-Michel-Mt.-Mercure). It is located on a high knoll, the "Les Justices" hill (where justice was rendered during the time of the druids). It is the highest point (≈290 m above sea level; ≈950 ft) in the Vendée region of France, on the Haute Bocage ridge. See this interactive topographical map. From there, one has a beautiful free view in all directions, including the northeast towards the Atlantic, and beyond to England. About 60 mtrs to the northwest of the antenna base, there is a concrete revetment that may have been for a Flugabwehrkanone unit (also Fliegerabwehrkanone, a.k.a. "flak", anti-aircraft guns).

The installation was strafed at least once (by two British or American aircraft on 15 August 1944, ref. 116).

From 1954 to 1958/59 (when France changed its role within NATO), the site was used by the US military as a wireless telecom station. These days, there is a cell-phone and FM broadcast transmitter installation.

This Berhard-station was the fourth to be discovered by the British, in aerial photos of September 1942 (ref. 174H). Those photos showed three large huts (two with estimated size of 80x44 ft [24x13 m], one of 70x52 ft [21x16m]) located on the same knoll as the station. They form operational rooms and staff quarters. Similar to the other discovered stations, there was a small antenna mast nearby, here on another knoll, 450 yards [410 m] to the southeast (see the photo below).

Berhard station

RAF aerial photo of the St.-Michel-Mt.-Mercure site (19 September 1942)

(source: ref. 174H, reported monitoring mast location is marked with yellow circle)

Berhard station

Satellite image of the St.-Michel-Mt.-Mercure site (2016)

(source: geoportal.gouv.fr; the mast location per ref. 174H is marked with a yellow circle)

Berhard station

Aerial photo of the St.-Michel-Mt.-Mercure site (14 May 1950)

(source: geoportal.gouv.fr; full-size photo C1425-0021_1950_F1425-1725_0343, 11 MB)

Berhard station

1950s aerial photo of the Bernhard site at St.-Michel-Mt.-Mercure

(US-army built cabin is clearly visible across the concrete ring)

Berhard station

The above 1950s aerial photo - with structures and roads/trails highlighted


The visitor-sign on the northwest side of the parking lot refers to it as a WW2 German radar. However, the text correctly calls it a "Bernhard" radio-navigation station, combined with an airborne printer. It quotes an antenna size of 25x25m and an antenna weight of 75 tons (both incorrect), and shows the picture of the installation at Bredstedt as well as a sketch made by the French resistance (Y. Rocard).

Berhard station

Visitor sign


The concrete base of this Bernhard installation is nestled on a small hilltop. The hilltop is actually just a small granite outcrop with steep sides, and is not big enough for the complete ring and the round central building. Hence, a significant part of the ring is much taller than the Bernhard-rings placed on flat terrain. On the east side, the ring is about 3.7 meters tall. The ring is conical: slightly wider at the base than at the top - probably for stability reasons.

The photo below shows the ties of the rail track. At this particular site, practically all rail ties (UK: sleepers) are still in place, 120 in total. Here, only two out of every three ties have bolts sticking up for the track fasteners (rail-chairs). The bolts for the inside track are taller than those of the outside track. Also, one in three ties does not have mounting bolts, but mounting support plates. Again, the one for the inside track is taller than the one for the outside track. These plates do not have mounting bolts welded on top of them. The ties are sections of I-beam, about 15 cm wide, embedded into the concrete.

Berhard station

The ties of the rail track and the walkway on the outside of the concrete ring


The photo above also shows a concrete walkway on the outside of the ring; it leads from one set of stairs to an other. The walkway has a raised edge that once supported handrails. On the center of the edge, there is a heavy metal strip about every 1.5 m. All strips have now been folded over. They probably served to fix in place the wooden posts of the handrail.

Berhard station

Folded-over fastener strip for a post of the hand-rail around the walkway

(photo ©2013 G. Chatry; used with permission)

The circular concrete base is about 1.5 m wide (≈ 5 ft). At some Bernhard sites, the top of the ring is flat, at others it is clearly rounded. Here, the top edges are chamfered. On the west side of the concrete ring, there are seven rectangular concrete blocks, that are placed radially against the base of the ring. They may have been foundations for the supports of a wooden continuation of the walkway between the stairs. The blocks do not touch the concrete ring, so they are not buttresses.

Berhard station

Concrete blocks at the base of the ring

(photo ©2013 G. Chatry; used with permission)

There are two sets of concrete stairs that lead to the top of the concrete base. The stairs are rather wide. The one on the south side has 13 steps, the one on the north side has 12 steps, with a bottom step that has a double-length tread. Close to the bottom of each set of stairs, there are metal conduits that go straight up against the concrete base - two on the south side, one on the north side.

Berhard station

Stairs on the south side of the concrete ring

(photo ©2013 G. Chatry; used with permission)

Berhard station

Stairs on the north side of the concrete ring


Berhard station

A regular local transformer station, about 50 m northeast of the ring

(photo ©2013 G. Chatry; used with permission)

There are two large metal tubes that go up against the ring, near the stairs on the south side. The tubes pass through the ring, between the top two layers of concrete of the ring. It is fair to assume that they are part of the original installation. Near the stairs on the north side of the ring, there is only a single metal conduit.

Berhard station

There are metal conduits near both stairs


A shielded cable runs through the left-hand tube on the south side. A single stranded (modern?) cable runs through the right-hand tube. Most likely, these tubes carried electrical power cables to the Bernhard system, from a power generator in one of the barracks to the southeast of the ring.

Berhard station

(photo ©2013 G. Chatry; used with permission)

Berhard station

The single tube (north side) passes through the top layer of the concrete ring

(photo ©2013 G. Chatry; used with permission)

The photo above shows that the ring has been filled in, and there are three rectangular openings. They may provide access to the original round building at the center of the ring. It is unclear at which point in time the ring was filled in. Probably not during the German time - it would have made it impossible to get equipment in and out of the small round building below the rotating antenna system. Post-war, the US-Army built a concrete bridge across the ring, with a single-level structure on top of it.

Berhard station

Top-view diagram of the ring with the stairs, walkway, and conduits

(the blue rectangle is the post-war US-built structure)

Berhard station

View from the northwest side of the ring - the ring is clearly on top of the knol

(photo ©2013 G. Chatry; used with permission)

Berhard station

View from the south side of the ring - concrete slab on top of the water reservoir is visible at the center of the photo

(photo ©2013 G. Chatry; used with permission)

Berhard station

The north side of the US-built structure across the ring

(photo ©2013 G. Chatry; used with permission)

Berhard station

The south side of the US-built structure across the ring

(photo ©2013 G. Chatry; used with permission)

The two photos above show stubs on the outer edge of the walkway on both sides of the structure. They are remnants of a guard rail - probably from when the time when the ring was not yet filled in. The photo below show that the US-Army also erected a handrail on the ties of the outside rail of the circular track. Some of the posts and bases are still there:

Berhard station

Remnants of a hand rail, installed post-war by the US Army onto the bolts of the outside rail


Right next to the southeast side of the Bernhard-ring, there is a small concrete ancillary building. This building does not show up in the 1950 aerial photo above. It does show up in the 1950s aerial photo that was taken after the US military had modified the site. It has ventilation louvres, so it may have housed a power generator. This is corroborated by the fact that there is a 1.5 m wide rectangular concrete slab on the floor of this building, right behind each louvre.

Berhard station

Post-war ancillary building near the concrete ring


Berhard station

1950s aerial photo - placement of the ancillary building, relative to the concrete ring


About a 100 meters to the southeast of the Bernhard-ring, next to the parking lot, the foundations of German barracks are still visible today:

Berhard station
Berhard station

Berhard station

View from the east side of the barracks - US-built generator building and structure across the ring in the top right-hand corner

(photo ©2013 G. Chatry; used with permission)


BERNHARD INSTALLATION BE-6 AT MARLEMONT (France, dept. 08)

Map

"La Butte de Marlemont" is a high point (292 meter ASL) in the rolling hills of the French Ardennes, about 70 km north of Rheims and close to the French-Belgian border. "La Butte" is located about 1 km to the southwest of the town of Marlemont. There is a madonna statue on top of the Bernhard's round building. During the German occupation of the site, this statue was moved to the local cemetery (ref. 111).

There are two brick-wall-with-concrete-roof barracks nearby, the foundation of a third, as well as the concrete supports for a large cylindrical horizontal tank (fuel or water).

During the mid-1950, relay station R1 of the NATO/LANDCENT and AIRCENT microwave telecom networks were installed close to the Bernhard site. Relay station 18 of the AFCENT microwave network was added during the early/mid-1960s.

Berhard station

Be-6 is marked on a Luftwaffe night-fighter navigation chart

(source: ref. 136)

A "reliable informant" reported to the British that the station rotated with a speed of 8 km/h [ = 5 mph]. Based on the (wrong) assumption that the Bernhard-ring has a diameter of 82 ft [25 m], a rotational period of 36 sec. was estimated. Ref. 173E. for the actual diameter of 71 ft [21.5 m], the correct period of 30 sec. would have been obtained.

Berhard station

The top of the round building of the Bernhard site at Marlemont is adorned with a religious statue

(©2007 W. Gijzen, used with permission)

Berhard station

The ties at Marlemont are I-beams - note the blocks on each rail-tie on for the inside rail-track

(©2007 W. Gijzen, used with permission)

Berhard station

The ties at Marlemont

(source: image used in accordance with creativecommons license)

Berhard station

The ties at Marlemont

(source unknown)

Berhard station

The heavy steel structure of the round building

(©2007 W. Gijzen, used with permission)

Berhard station

The "turn-table" on top of the ball bearing in the roof of the round building

(source: unknown)


Berhard station

A flanged cylindrical tube descends from the turn-table, through the ceiling of the round building

(note that the octagonal mounting plate has been removed - the mounting bolts are still there)


Berhard station

Aerial photo of the Marlemont site (20 April 1953)

(source: geoportal.gouv.fr; full-size photo C2909-0041_1953_F2909_0028, 14 MB)


Berhard station

Satellite image of the Marlemont site (ca. 2012)

(source: geoportal.gouv.fr)


BERNHARD INSTALLATION BE-7 AT ARCACHON (France, dept. 33)

Map

On 19 July 2012, I visited the remnants of the Bernhard installation at La Teste-de-Buch, just outside Arcachon. It is located in the Camicas-dune area, some 2 km south of the south-shore of the Bay of Arcachon, 50 km southwest of downtown Bordeaux.

It was actually the site of an old maritime radio station "Arcachon Radio", with the call-sign FFC. The station dates back to the early 1900s, and originally operated in the LF-MF frequency range. It may have had its own power generator capability. The station was active until 1997 or 1999. In 1985, the maritime station at Brest/Le-Conquet took over the night-time operation of FFC via remote-control, and all operations in 1993.

These days, the site has an 88 m (290 ft) tall cell-phone tower, with the antennas of several FM radio stations.


The station was constructed during 1942/43. Analysis of aerial photos taken by RAF 192 Squadron in February of 1943 showed the turntable had been constructed and the superstructure erected. Ref. 173D. The report mentions that photos from June and December 1942 showed no signs of any new construction being prepared. Operational buildings and quarters consist of "two large, nearly square huts and a long narrow hut, all more or less symmetrically situated to the south of the array". 192 Squadron also went on two recce flights mid-November 1943, to search for sweeping signals [ = rotating beam] emanating from a radio-navigation beam station near Arcachon. No "Bernhard" signals were detected during those flights.

The installation was dismantled by the retreating Germans after the Allied invasion of France. Ref. 99 suggests on the one hand that the (entire) installation was moved to Buke, but also states that (only) the equipment from Arcachon was re-used at Buke. The latter is corroborated by the post-war picture below of the installation at Arcachon: it shows a dismantled, damaged, and de-railed installation. So the antenna system was definitely not moved!

Bernhard station

The Archachon "Bernhard" after the war - damaged, dismantled, de-railed

(source: p. 21 in ref. 90)

Bernhard station

RAF aerial photo of the Arcachon site (18 February 1943)

(source: ref. 173D; three huts on south side of station (mentioned in the report) are marked in yellow)

Bernhard station

Aerial photo of the Arcachon site (19 December 1946)

(source: geoportal.gouv.fr; full-size photo C1337-0071_1946_CDP2341-4517, 37 MB!)


Bernhard station

Aerial views with red & white truss mast on top of the round Bernhard building (1980s-1990s)

(left image (looking north) source Arcachon-Radio; right image: looking south)

Bernhard station

Satellite image - perspective view (ca. 2013)


Bernhard station

Satellite image - overhead view (ca. 2013)

(source: geoportal.gouv.fr)


The following diagram is based on my measurements of the site:

Bernhard station

Cross-section of the installation at Arcachon


At the center of the ring is the standard round building. Almost half of it is below ground level. The ceiling is 3m06 above the below-ground floor level. The building has a 120 cm (4 ft) wide concrete walkway around it. Five concrete steps go down 130 cm below ground level, to the entrance door. Unlike, e.g., the installation at Venusberg/Aidlingen, the side-walls of the trench with the steps is attached to the building, and the stair treads are still present. The entrance is on the north side of the building.

Bernhard station

The north side (with door) and east side of the round building


The original windows measured 120x120 (4x4 ft). The window on the east side has been reduced to 48x48 cm (1x1 ft). The window on the south side has been closed off with 1970s-style glass blocks. The window on the west side has been closed off completely, though the original outline is clearly visible. The door is a modern steel door. A large octagonal box sits on top of the roof. The box and the rest of the roof are covered with tar paper. Clearly these are post-war additions. Perhaps the box covers the original ball-bearing and mounting plate construction.

Bernhard station

The south side (left) and west side of the round building


Above the east-window, on the side of the roof, there is part of a round porcelain insulator. See photo below. Looking into the opening of the window, we can see three additional porcelain insulators, on the wall just next to the opening. They are mounted on a vertical steel profile (56 cm long, 2.5 cm thick, 7 cm wide). This central building continued to be used, when the maritime radio station resumed its normal operation after the war. The insulators are a post-war addition.

Bernhard station

Porcelain insulators inside & above the east-facing window - post-war additions


Inside the round building, there are several objects attached to the wall that are clearly post-war: a relatively modern electrical heater and telephone outlet, PVC conduits, and a wall light above the door. Below the east window opening, there is an old 4-prong junction box with triangular shape. It appears to be original. Near this box, several cables enter the building through the wall, just above floor level. I presume that this is where 3-phase AC-power entered from the generator in a nearby building.

Bernhard station

Junction box with four large prongs (installed below the east-facing window)


A heavy I-beam column has been added at the center of the building. It supports the octagonal plate on the ceiling. At some point in time (post-war) a very tall truss-mast was installed on top of the round building. See the aerial photos at the beginning of this section.

Bernhard station

Inside the round building: a central support column and the door


The concrete ring at Arcachon has the standard 150 cm (5 ft) width. The top of the ring is 70 cm above the soil, both on the inside and outside of the ring.

Bernhard station

The concrete ring at Arcachon

(a cable trench made of concrete tiles is visible between the ring and the round building)

The concrete ring is interrupted on the southeast side. The cut has a slight V-shape, and a cable "tunnel" passes through it. It leads to one of the three buildings located to the south of the ring, several meters below. It looks like the cut through the ring is not a post-war modification. On the inside of the ring, the cable-tunnel leads about half way towards the round building's east window. The tunnel is made of large cement/concrete tiles (42 cm wide, 5 cm thick).

Bernhard station

A cable trench passes through the south side of the concrete ring


Bernhard station

The concrete ring at Arcachon


The ring appears to have been poured in two steps (see photo below): a lower part, and an upper part. The lower part was poured into a mould made of vertical wood planks - their markings are still clearly visible. The concrete of the upper part has lots of pebbles in it.

Bernhard station

The concrete ring has two visible layers


Bernhard station

The rail ties are actually I-beams, embedded into the concrete


At various points around the ring, steel brackets have been welded to some of the ties. See photos below. They stick out above the bolts that were used to fix the rails to the rail-ties. They must have been added post-war, possibly to tie-off guy wires for antenna pylons when the marine station had resumed operation. There are also several small I-beams embedded into the concrete between some rail ties. The concrete around them does not appear to be disturbed. So, they must be original. However, their purpose is not known.

Bernhard station

Bernhard station

My 3D photos of this "Bernhard" station are here.



BERNHARD INSTALLATION BE-8 AT BERGEN (SCHOORL, The Netherlands)

Map

Bernhard station Be-8 is located on the highest coastal dune (50+ mtrs above sea level) of the Netherlands, on the southwest outskirts of the village of Schoorl, 3.8 km [2.4 miles] from the beach. This is some 40 km [25 miles] to the north of downtown Amsterdam.

It is also a mere 6 km north of what used to be the airfield of Bergen. The latter was built by the Dutch MoD in 1938/39, and was home to the 4th Fighter Squadron (12 Fokker G1a aircraft, similar to the British de Havilland "Mosquito"), and a Reconnaissance Squadron (10 Fokker C10). It became a Luftwaffe "Fliegerhorst" after the German invasion in May of 1940. The Germans abandoned the airfield in 1944. Luftwaffe fighter squadrons were based at over 15 Fliegerhorste in The Netherlands, all within a 30-140 km range of Bergen (e.g., Amsterdam-Schiphol, de Kooy, Leeuwarden, Deelen, Havelte/Steenwijk, Soesterberg, Ypenburg, Waalhaven, Haamstede, Bergen-op-Zoom, Gilze-Rijen, Eindhoven, Volkel, Texel - all were preexisting Dutch airfields). Especially the ones near the Dutch coast were involved with intercepting Allied bombers from Britain.

Berhard station

Low-altitude off-shore RAF aerial photo of the Bernhard station near Schoorl (14 June 1943)

(source: ref. 172A)

Berhard station

Be-8 is marked on a Luftwaffe night-fighter navigation chart

(source: ref. 136)

The Bernhard-installation at Schoorl was constructed in 1942/43 and became operational in May of 1943. The station was already under construction in March of 1942, but negligible progress was made for about a year, through the end of February 1943. The carriage across the ring was in place by 22 March 1943. Ref. 174A. On 31 March 1943, the antenna structure was still being erected (top antenna-array still to be fitted). Ref. 174C.

The installation was surrounded by a large number (several dozen) of concrete and brick buildings: several 6-man crew shelters (stenverteidigung (Küver) bunkers type 412), a 12-man bunker of type Küver 467 (with FLAK anti-aircraft guns on top), a control bunker (9x10m), a communications bunker, a brick building with a power transformer, several small Ringstand machine gun and grenade-thrower bunkers of type 201/58c &Tobruk&, etc. The defensive facilities were referred to as Widerstandsnest (W.N., lit. "resistance nest") 34 L. The station was operated by a staff of about fifteen, part of the 8th Flugnachrichten Regiment West.

Berhard station

RAF aerial photo of the "Bergen/Belvedere" area (22 March 1943)

(source: ref. 174B)

Berhard station

The ring with an adjacent FLAK-base on top of a bunker

(source: unknown, probably late 1943)

The Bernhard installation was severely damaged during an attack by Bristol Beaufighters from the RAF No. 143 Squadron in September of 1944. The system was out of commission for almost half a year, and damaged again shortly after it was put back into service.

Some of the service buildings were used by a youth hostel from 1949 to 1964. The Bernhard ring, several Ringstand bunkers, and several crew shelter bunkers were completely dismantled during the second half of the 1980s (the ring itself in 1988). Since 1987, the remaining brick buildings accommodate a center for spiritual and physical health. A visit of the site in 2006 (ref. 135) suggests that the Auswertebunker (control bunker) on the southwest side of the ring, provided access to a tunnel system that passed under the ring (so, possibly also to the round building at the center of the ring).


Berhard station

The ring with an adjacent FLAK-base on top of a bunker

(photo: ©1980 Dan van Lunsen, used with permission)

The concrete ring has the standard dimensions: 22 meter diameter and 1.5 meter wide. Ca. 1987, the terrain was 0.6 - 1 meter below the top of the ring. The top of this ring has chamfered edges. The rail-ties are clearly sections of steel I-beam. They are 1.3 meter long, 15.5 cm wide ( = standard I-beam width per DIN 1025), and had bolts sticking up at ca. 13 and 27 cm from both ends.

Berhard station

The ring with the ties for the rail tracks in 1980

(photo: ©1980 Dan van Lunsen, used with permission)


Berhard station

The ring in 1980

(photo: ©1980 Dan van Lunsen, used with permission)

The photo below shows the Bernhard installation after it was fully dismantled. The pile on the right is an upside-down section of the rail-cover (incl. stairs) that rotated with the antenna. A support wheel is visible.

Berhard station

The destroyed "Bernhard"

(photo: ref. 127)


Berhard station

The destroyed "Bernhard"

(photo: ref. 127)



BERNHARD INSTALLATION BE-9 AT BREDSTEDT (Germany)

Map

Bernhard station Be-9 was located on the "Stollberg" hill, 4 km north-west of Bredstedt in the far north of Germany, right next to the B5 highway. This is ca. 32 km southwest of Flensburg, and half-way between Leck and Husum. With 44 m above sea level, it is one of the highest points in the area (see this interactive topographic map). According to ref. 99, this Berhard station had the "Kennbuchstabe" identifier "K", transmitted as part of the compass rose information .

The aerodrome of Leck is only 13 km north of the Bernhard station, and was a Luftwaffe Fliegerhorst built in 1939/40. It became a fighter base mid-1944. Husum had a small civil aerodrome that was built in 1931. In September of 1939, it was expanded into a Luftwaffe Einsatzflugplatz (main operating base): Husum-Schauendahl. Luftwaffe fighters were stationed here full-time, starting May 1942. Nearby Husum-Schwesing was a decoy airfield. Ref. 119.

Berhard station

Be-9 is marked on a Luftwaffe night-fighter navigation chart

(source: ref. 136)

Before the Bernhard station was built at this location, it was the site of FuSAn 721 "Knickebein" station number K2. It was built in 1939 and operational in 1940. "Knickebein" was also a radio-navigation beacon. The "Knickebein" stations in Germany (K2 at Bredstedt, K4 at Kleve, K12 at Maulburg/Lörrach) were all the large version of the system. It had an enormous antenna system: almost 31 m tall (≈100 ft) and 95 m wide (≈300 ft), and could be rotated on a track with a diameter of about 90 m. The small version ("kleine Bauform") of "Knickebein" only stood half as tall and wide as the large version, and had a circular track with a diameter of 31 m. It had a smaller range. Hence, it was used at locations in occupied countries, closer to targets in England. The "Knickebein" antenna could be rotated, so as to point it in the direction of the target that was to be bombed. Like the "Bernhard" system, the "Knickebein" antenna system had a central support, and a circular track on a concrete base (though a single track and no locomotives). Both "Knickebein" and "Bernhard" operated in the same frequency range (30-33.3 MHz), so they could use the same airborne receivers.

This "Knickebein" station was only active for about a year, until British jamming and spoofing became too effective. It was abandoned before mid-1941, at which time the site was guarded by civilians. Mid-1944, the installation was still there (ref. 120), though obviously not operational. This suggests that the Bernhard station at Bredstedt was constructed after the summer of 1944. The concrete ring of the Bernhard beacon was built inside the defunct "Knickebein" circle, off-center. The barracks outside the "Knickebein" circle were all put in place for the "Knickebein". Two brick building were added inside that circle, to support the operation of the "Bernhard" station. After the war, the barracks were used for German refugees from eastern Europe (ref. 120).

Berhard station

Satellite image of the Stollberg site (ca. 2011)

(at the 10 o'clock position of the circle: modern transmitter tower (TV, FM radio, telecom, cell phone); the dashed blue lines show where the road used to be)

There were living quarters on the north side of the "Knickebein" circle (officers may have been quartered in town), a guard house and a "Wirtschaftsbaracke" (canteen, possibly laundry and washroom facilities) to the northeast. There was an electric power barrack ("Generatorbaracke") about 25 meters to the east of the Bernhard ring. Between the "Wirtschaftsbaracke" and the "Generatorbaracke", there was a light air-raid shelter ("Luftschutzunterstand"), dug out into the ground, and reinforced with a wall made of wooden poles.

Berhard station

Wooden barracks on the east side of the Knickebein & Bernhard rings, behind wooden fence

(source: R. Grzywatz, used with permission)

The concrete foundation slab for the generator is still visible today:

Berhard station

The rectangular concrete foundation of the power generator is still still there

(source: ©2008 R. Grzywatz, used with permission)

The standard antenna mast for monitoring of the "Bernhard" transmissions was located in a field, over 500 meters southeast of the Bernhard ring:

Berhard station

The antenna mast for transmission-monitoring was located over 500 meters southeast of the Bernhard ring.


The concrete foundation measured 3 x 3 meters (10x10 ft; the same size as at other Bernhard sites):

Berhard station

Concrete foundation of the monitoring-antenna mast (right-hand photo: the mast was partly re-used later)

(source: R. Grzywatz, used with permission)

Each leg of the 30 meter tall mast was secured to the foundation with two bolts (threaded rebar) with 20mm diameter. After the war, a section of the mast was used for a lookout tower at a nearby fox breeding farm. The concrete foundation was removed in 2013.

Berhard station

Mounting bolts for one of the legs of the mast (left), and embedded ground straps (right)

(source: ©2008 R. Grzywatz, used with permission)

A radio mast and associated barracks were located some 250 meters to the northeast of the circles (see satellite image above). The mast sticks up through the roof of a large barn, and was disguised as a windmill ("Tarnwindmühle"). This was a so-called "Brummer" ("buzzer") relay station. Basically a range-extender repeater for the voice-broadcast of running commentary of a Y-station, for vector-guiding fighter aircraft to their target. It operated in the low-VHF band (38-42 MHz) with up to 200W (200 km max range).

Berhard station

The electrical power power barn and the "windmill" VHF radio mast

(the wires going to the tower are either from the local power network, or telephone/teleprinter lines)


Berhard station

Antenna system of the large "Knickebein" nr. K2 at Bredstedt (circular track diameter ca. 90 meters)

(source: ref. 110; observation tower visible through the lower part of the left side of the antenna)


Berhard station

"Knickebein" antenna system - small version (circular track diameter ca. 31 m)


The British "Air Disarmament Wing" (ADW) moved in, as soon as a Luftwaffe airfield or other installation was captured. Besides disarming and disbanding the Luftwaffe units, their task was to get classified documents (and other items of interest), translate and interpret them, and send them to ADW headquarters or to the Air Ministry in London. The ADW employed Luftwaffe personnel. In the photos below, taken ca. August of 1945, they wear a white "ADW" arm band on their left arm.

Berhard station

"Wirtschaftsbaracke" (canteen etc.) at far left, electrical power barn at far right, with fake windmill radio tower behind it

(source: Australian War Memorial photo SUK14634 (left; also photo page 5 in ref. 5) & 14632, public domain; ca. August 1945)

In the background of the left-hand photo above: the "Wirtschaftsbaracke" (canteen etc.) at the far left, electrical power barn at the far right, with the fake windmill radio tower behind it. Across the foreground of the right-hand photo is the track of the Knickebein that preceded the Bernhard at this site.

Berhard station

The German chief engineer (with white ADW armband) of the station explains the details of the system to RAF ADW men

(source: Australian War Memorial photo SUK14633, public domain; ca. August 1945)


Berhard station

A German engineer describing controls of the "Bernhard" system at Bredstedt to a member of the ADW

(source: Australian War Memorial photo SUK14636, public domain; ca. August 1945)


Berhard station

Upper framework of the "Bernhard" antenna system

(source: Australian War Memorial photo SUK14635, public domain; ca. August 1945)


BERNHARD INSTALLATION BE-10 AT HUNDBORG (THISTED, Denmark)

Map

Bernhard station Be-10 was built on the Gåsbjerg hill, about 1.8 km east of the center of the village of Hundborg and 10 km west of Thistedt, on the northwestern coast of Denmark. The hill has an unobstructed view in all directions (see this interactive topographic map).

Control of this Bernhard station was most likely coordinated by the (night)fighters control center at the Luftwaffe aerodrome (Fliegerhorst) Grove, now Karup airbase, located 75 km to the southeast of Hundborg.

This station probably became operational mid-1942. The capability to send "running commentary" command messages in Hellschreiber-format to aircraft (instead of sending the compass rose information) was added in 1945.

Berhard station

The Bernhard installation on Gåsbjerg hill east of Hundborg, 1945

(source: Thisted Arkiv, Billednr. 24914)


Berhard station

Map of the mine field around the perimeter of the Bernhard site on Gåsbjerg hill - October 1944

(source: Hundborg Lokalhistoriske Arkiv; used with permission; click here to get full size)


Berhard station

"GERÄT BERNHARD 10" is marked near the center of the above map, confirming the Be-10 number of the installation



Berhard station

Be-10 is also marked on a Luftwaffe night-fighter navigation chart

(source: ref. 136)

Berhard station

The "Bernhard" station at Hundborg

(source: www.gyges.dk, used with permission; US gov't = no ©)


Berhard station

(source: Figure 4.27 in ref. 24)

Berhard station

Power supply and generator of the Hundborg installation

(photo courtesy Mike Dean, US National Archives & Records Adm. (NARA) image nr. 111 SC 269041; US gov't = no ©)

The photos were taken inside the cabin below the rotating antenna systems of the Bernhard installation. The photo on the left shows the two transmitter-modulators, two monitor Hellschreiber printers, and the patch-board for "programming" the 10-character running commentary command uplink messages. The photo on the right shows a Mercury Arc Rectifier. It is part of the power supply system of the transmitters, or of the locomotive control system.

Berhard station

Equipment inside the rotating cabin of the Bernhard installation at Hundborg

(source: ref. 93)

Berhard station

Ceiling of the round building at the center of the "Bernhard" at Hundborg - note the original wiring and the flanged tubular shaft

(source: www.gyges.dk, used with permission)

Berhard station

1945 aerial photo of the Bernhard site

(source: www.gyges.dk)

The Thylands Ungdomsskole school was founded in 1943 and moved into the four German buildings at the Bernhard-site in 1947. The concrete ring and round building at its center are still there. They are now inside the bicycle storage shed of the school (now part of the Thyland Idrætsefterskole sports school). A nearby bunker contained a transformer station. These days, apparently only its top is visible.

Berhard station

The "Thylands Ungdomsskole" Hundborg with the Bernhard ring and round building at its center - 1950

(source: Thisted Arkiv, Billednr. 55683)


Berhard station

Satellite image of the Hundborg site (ca. 2012)


Berhard station

The ring and the round building are now inside the bicycle shed of the school

(source: www.gyges.dk, used with permission)

Berhard station

The two buildings on the east side of the Bernhard ring

(source: Hundborg Lokalhistoriske Arkiv; used with permission)

Berhard station

Cross-section of the Bernhard ring on Gåsbjerg hill

(based on ref. 115)

A "Diodenmast" antenna mast for monitoring the signal of the Bernhard-transmissions was erected at the Dybdahlsgave road, 1 km to the southwest of the Bernhard site. A cable ran between this antenna and the Bernhard station. The mast was demolished in 1972.

Berhard station

Monitoring antenna at Dybdahlsgave road - 1970

(source: Thisted Arkiv, Billednr. 24902 (left) and 46991)

Berhard station

The monitoring antenna mast at Dybdahlsgave road

(source: Hundborg Lokalhistoriske Arkiv; used with permission)

Berhard station

Concrete foundation of the mast of the monitoring antenna at Dybdahlsgave road

(source: Hundborg Lokalhistoriske Arkiv; used with permission)

A full-scale wooden decoy Bernhard-antenna was erected at Bavnehøj hill (62 m ASL), 1 km to the northwest of the actual Bernhard site.

Berhard station

Wooden decoy-Bernhard at Bavnehøj

source: left image 1942 Thisted Arkiv, Billednr. 24907, right - Hundborg Lokalhistoriske Arkiv; used with permission)

Berhard station

The two buildings on the northeast side of the Bernhard ring, seen from the top of the Bernhard antenna (1944)

(source: Thisted Arkiv, Billednr. 24910)


Berhard station

The German headquarters in Hundborg (1945), next to the church - now a parking lot

(source: Thisted Arkiv, Billednr. 24913)


Berhard station

The German baracks next to the church in Hundborg - the decoy antenna at Bavnehøj at the top left (1945)

(source: Thisted Arkiv, Billednr. 24911)

There was a German Wassermann-S radar near the beach of Vorupør, some 8 km to the northwest of Hundborg. It had the designator S1, so it was probably the first Wassermann installation of type "S" ("Schwer" = heavy). Ref. 112. The cylindrical mast is about 40 m tall!

Berhard station

The Wassermann-S radar at Vorupør near Hundborg

(source: Hundborg Lokalhistoriske Arkiv; used with permission)


BERNHARD INSTALLATION BE-11 AT TRZEBNICA (TREBNITZ, Poland)

Map

Bernhard installation Be-11 is located about 3 km southeast of the center of the town of Trzebnica, just off the road to Głuchów Górny, abeam the village of Raszów. The installation was dismantled by the Germans, ahead of the advancing Russian troops, and shipped to Buke (ref. 99, 104).

The location of this station is also referred to as being near Breslau (actually located 22 km to the south) - probably because there was a Luftwaffe airfield there: Breslau-Schöngarten. There was a pilot school there since 1938, and Ju-87 "Stuka" dive bombers were built here by the Junkers company. Breslau is a German name, as it was in Lower Silesia ("Niederschlesien"). After the war, this area (and others) became part of Poland, and the name of the town changed to Wrocław (Wrazlaw).

The station appears to have been destroyed in 1946. There was a command bunker ("Kommandobunker") about 40 mtrs from the ring. The generator-transformer bunker and a crew bunker ("Mannschaftsbunker") were located another 30 mtrs from there.

Berhard station

Be-11 is marked on a Luftwaffe night-fighter navigation chart

(source: ref. 136)


Berhard station

Old aerial image of the Trzebnica site (1970s ?)

(photo: courtesy C. Piotrowski, used with permission)

Berhard station

The aerial photo above, zoomed-in on the Bernhard ring


Berhard station

Satellite image of the Trzebnica site (2008 or 2012)


Berhard station

The concrete ring - 2004 (left) and 2005 (right)

(source left photo: RadioPolska, © K. Sagan; right: ©2005 C. Piotrowski; both used with permission)

Berhard station

There are round holes at the base of the inside of the ring - their purpose is unknown


Berhard station

Ca. 2013, a house was built inside the concrete ring

(photo: © Jacek Durych, used with permission)

The monitoring mast is located about 445 m (≈¼ mile) south of the Bernhard ring.

Berhard station

The monitoring antenna mast (1980s)

(photo: courtesy C. Piotrowski, used with permission)

This is the only Bernhard site where the original mast is still standing (at least through 2014)! Only the actual antenna rod, and the box that it was mounted on, is missing. The modern antennas at the top belong to an FM broadcast station (Muzyczne Radio) and are directed towards Wrocław (Wrazlaw). The mast is actually about 22 m tall (ref. 129; ≈72 ft), contrary to the 30 m stated in 1945 US intelligence (ref. 13).

Berhard station

The monitoring antenna mast (2014)

(photo left: © C. Piotrowski, used with permission; photo right: source RadioPolska, © K. Sagan, used with permission)

Berhard station

Looking up inside the monitoring antenna mast, and the base of the mast

(©2014 C. Piotrowski, used with permission)


BERNHARD INSTALLATION BE-12 AT NEVID (PLZEŇ / PILSEN, Czech Republic)

Map

The Be-12 station is located some 200 meters to the west of the village of Nevid, in what is now the Czech Republic. It is near the highest point in the area (527 m ASL) - the Brdy hills. Nearby villages are Rokyvá and Mirošv. This station was constructed in 1943. The operating crew was housed in nearby wooden barracks. A local company, "Mandaus, Ing. Švajcr a spol." (Engineer Švajcr Mandaus & Co.) from Pilsen/Plzeň probably did the construction of the concrete ring and nearby buildings.

Berhard station

Be-12 is marked on a Luftwaffe night-fighter navigation chart

(source: ref. 136)

This site is often referred to as Pilsen (home of the famous Pilsner Urquell beer), which actually lies 16 km (10 mi) to the northwest. Pilsen got its Czech name "Plzeň", after the war, when the German population (Südeten-Deutschen) were driven out of the area. There was an aerodrome at Brünn (post-war name: Bory), on the southeast side of Pilsen. It became a Luftwaffe airfield when Germany annexed major parts of Czechoslovakia. It was home to several squadrons ("Jagdgeschwader" and "Kampfgeschwader"), pilot training school, and "Flughafen-Bereichs-Kommando Brünn". These days, nothing remains of the aerodrome. During the German occupation, the Škoda factories at Pilsen and nearby Rokycany produced tanks, guns, shells, and shell cases. Ref. 133.

Berhard station

Side view of the Be-12 installation - probably during construction

(source: brdy.org)

Berhard station

Satellite image of the Nevid site (ca. 2012)


Berhard station

The round building at the center of the ring is visible from a nearby street intersection (2011)


Berhard station

Same view, during the winter (2009 ?)

(source: unknown)

Berhard station

The round building at the center of the ring - Nevid village at the top right hand corner

(source: brdy.org)

Berhard station

The other side of the round central building

(source: © Jacek Durych, used with permission)

Berhard station

A big ball bearing raceway in the roof of the round building (5 of the 8 mounting bolts visble)

(source: © Jacek Durych, used with permission)

Berhard station

Inside the round building: one of the four corner columns and the ceiling

(source: left image brdy.org, right image © Jacek Durych, used with permission)

In the right-hand photo above, note the many tacks in the ceiling for attaching cables/wires; the octagonal mounting plate has been removed.

Ca. august of 2015, the land owner decided to destroy the building (and build something like horse carousel on the ring):

Berhard station

The sad remains of the steel structure at Nevid - outside the ring and upside-down

(source: © jdvlavicka)


BERNHARD INSTALLATION BE-13 AT BUKE

Map

The station at Buke is located on Keimberg hill at the southern end of the Teutoburg forest, about 1.8 km northeast of the village of Buke, which is part of the Altenbeken municipality. Its altitude of 376 m ASL (1200 ft) gives it a fully unobstructed view from the south to the northwest (the direction of inbound enemy airplanes), and no terrain higher by more than 70 m (230 ft) in the other quadrants. See this interactive topographic map.

The nearest city is Paderborn, ca. 13 km to the west. It had a Luftwaffe airfield, as did, e.g., Detmold-Hohenloh 20 km to the north (in the former county of Lippe), Geseke-Störmede 35 km to the southwest, Lippstadt 45 km to the southwest, Gütersloh 45 km to the northwest, Bad Lippspringe 11 km to the northwest, and Bielefeld-Örlinghausen 30 km to the northwest.

Construction of the station started in May of 1944 and was completed by the end of March 1945. Entry into service was planned for May of 1945, after calibration flights.

The equipment was scuttled by the Germans, when the American troops approached at the very beginning of May 1945. After the war, many parts were re-used locally. The rail tracks, cross-ties, and antenna structure were used in the reconstruction of war-damaged homes and buildings, and for farm equipment (ref. 99, 114). The motors of the electro-locomotives were used to power grain threshing machines. Buke ended up in the British occupation zone (1945-1949), and the British destroyed what was left of the installation structures with explosives.


Ref. 99 and 104 provide interesting details about the history of this station. Actually three (!) Bernhard stations appear to have been shipped to Buke:

  • a new one, straight from the Telefunken equipment factory and from the antenna manufacturer Hein, Lehman & Co. in Berlin.
  • the station from Trebnitz (Be-11; Trzebnica, Breslau, Wroclaw), dismantled by the retreating Germans, ahead of the advancing Russian troops.
  • the station from Arcachon, dismantled by the retreating Germans after the Allied invasion of France.

Berhard station

Three "Bernhard" systems were transported to Buke


That three stations were shipped to Buke, is attributed to administrative and logistic hiccups during the latter days of the war. The two superfluous stations were stored at the large furniture factory Leopoldstaler Möbelfabrik August Brandt & Co. G.m.b.H. in nearby Leopoldstal (11 km / 7 mi north of Buke).

Bernhard station

Ref. 99 states on the one hand that the (entire) installation from Arcachon was moved to Buke, but also that (only) the equipment from Arcachon was re-used at Buke. The latter is corroborated by a post-war picture of the installation at Arcachon: it shows a dismantled, partly collapsed, damaged installation.

Clearly, the Buke station was planned to be equipped with factory-new equipment, including a new Be-number, and an optical disk encoded with that number.

Bernhard station

1945 aerial photo of the Bernhard installation at Buke

(source: ref. 99, 100; the original photo is upside-down / south-side up)

Bernhard station

Satellite image of the same location (2011)


The circles in the photos above mark the following structures:

  • Nr. 1, 4, 5 (at the center of the photo): concrete ring with two bunkers of unequal size; a "Gerätebunker" for equipment, and a "Manschaftsbunker" for personnel.
  • Nr. 2 (550 m / 600 yards to the northwest of Nr. 1): the "Diodenmast" (antenna for the signal-monitoring receiver) on a 3x3m (10x10 ft) foundation.
  • Nr. 3 (400 m / 450 yards to the east of Nr. 1): a building of ca. 5x6m (15x20 ft). This was a "Hochspannungsbunker", i.e., a high-voltage bunker. The local public electrical power net was extended to this bunker (ref. 99). Note: per my own measurements, this bunker actually measured ≈4x5 m (12x15 ft).

In April of 2015, I finally had the opportunity to visit the site. The foundation of the monitoring antenna mast and the "high-voltage" bunker were easily located. But it took me a while to find the ring in the now wooded and overgrown area.

Bernhard station

Satellite image of the Buke site (ca. 2011)


Not even a third of the ring is visible. It is broken into three sections. A large section on the north side barely sticks out above ground level. Next to it is another large section. It is tilted over on its outside by about 45 degrees. See photos below. The ring has the standard 1.5 m width. It is about 1.4 m high.

Bernhard station

The large turned-over section of the concrete ring


Since the ring is broken into sections, we can get a good look at the cross-section. The ring appears to have been cast with as many as six distinct parts, see the photo below. The small ring-section that matches up with this butt-end shows the vertical division of the outside parts even clearer. The top layer is about 7 cm (3 inch) thick.

Bernhard station

Cross-section of the ring


The smaller, third section (about 2½ m long) is fully turned over on its outside. The right-hand side in the photo below, is the cross-section that matches with the one shown above. The dark blue mark-ups on the left-hand side of the image ( = top side of the ring) show two pairs of 20 mm M20 threaded steel bar ("re-bar") sticking out. They are the mounting bolts for the rail-chairs (clamps). The spacing between the bolts on the inside of the ring (top of the image) and the outside of the ring, is 96 cm (3 ft 2 inch) on-center. The bolts of each pair are spaced by 18.5 cm (7¼ inch) on-center.

Bernhard station

Mounting bolts and dimples on the top side of the ring


The dark blue arrows point at three "dimples" on the centerline of the top of the ring, between the inside & outside pairs of bolts. Such dimples exist in the top of the entire ring. The photo shows something rather curious! The dimple at the left arrow has a vertically installed piece of I-beam sticking out! See photo below. The one at the middle arrow has the normal rectangular outline, but its bottom is curved. The dimple on the right is a "standard" rectangular dimple, 20 cm (8 inch) wide and 15 cm (6 inch) deep.

Bernhard station

The three different dimples


Bernhard station

The outside of the ring - with marks from the vertical boards of the casing in which the concrete was poured


According to ref. 99 (from 1997), the roof of the bunker to the southeast of the ring had been blown off by the British, and a hunting cabin was built on top of the remnants in 1957. The satellite image above shows a house. This house (with a sign that it is a vacation rental home) is visible from the street, and clearly built on top of another structure.

The bunker behind the house, close to the fence on the north side, is collapsed:

Bernhard station

The collapsed bunker behind the house (north side), close to the fence


The foundation of the mast for the monitoring antenna has the standard 3x3 m (10x10 ft) dimension, and is at least 30 cm (1 ft) thick. It is now surrounded by three trees:

Bernhard station

The 3x3 m concrete foundation of the monitoring antenna mast


The power-geneartor bunker, some 400 m (¼ mile) to the east of the Bernhard ring, is also collapsed: the concrete roof has dropped straight down onto the foundation:

Bernhard station

The collapsed power-generator bunker



BERNHARD INSTALLATION BE-14 AT AIDLINGEN / VENUSBERG

Map

The Bernhard installation near Aidlingen (Be-14)) is located in a small wooded area that is close to the official top of the Venusberg, 2.5 km to the northwest of the village (24 km to the southeast of downtown Stuttgart). This hill is basically a big mound, with a relatively flat top at 537m (1762 ft) above sea level. See this interactive topographical map. There are other hills in the area with close to the same height, but none are higher. As the name suggests, it is a beautiful nature reserve area!

The Organisation Todt (OT) started construction of the installation in 1944. OT, named after its founder Fritz Todt, was responsible for numerous engineering and construction projects in Germany and occupied territories (the Autobahn system, the Atlantikwall and the Westwall ("Siegfried Line" in English), roads, railways, airports, U-boat shelters, bomb shelters, V1 and V2 missile launch sites, concentration camps, etc.). Construction materials (incl. concrete mix) arrived at the railway station of the village of Ehningen, 6-7 km (4 miles) to the east of the installation. From there, they were transported by local farmers, with horses and oxen. The tall mast for the monitoring antenna also arrived pre-assembled. The installation at Aidlingen was completed and tested January-March of 1945, but never entered operation. A Wehrmachtspioniereinheit (pioneer unit, corps of engineers) destroyed the installations on 16 April 1945, ahead of approaching French troops. Ref. 102, 103, 117, 131, 94, 95.

Fighter planes were stationed at several Luftwaffe airfields in the area: e.g., Hailfingen (night fighters, 18 km to the south), Böblingen (8km to the east; this was a satellite field, primarily for diversions), Echterdingen (24 km to the east), Malmsheim (9 km to the north), Nellingen (30 km to the east; 1945), and Großsachsenheim (35 km northeast). As in many other areas of Germany, the large industrial base of the Stuttgart area was completely converted to support the war effort. Examples: Robert Bosch (fuel injectors & injection pumps; a technology known but not operational on the Allied side, ref. 134), Daimler-Benz (car & airplane engines, superchargers, vehicles, high-speed patrol boats, generators), SKF (ball bearings), Zeis-Ikon (frmr. Contessa-Nagel; cameras), Mahle (light metal die-cast products, e.g., engine pistons). These larger companies also had numerous local and regional suppliers of parts and services.

Berhard station

British aerial reconnaissance photo of Aidlingen/Venusberg (26 December 1944)

(source: ref. 102)

Berhard station

Satellite image of the same location (ca. 2011) - "Bernhard" ring and nearby buildings marked heavy yellow lines

(thin yellow lines based on features in the aerial photo above; magenta lines are from a 2012 tourist map)

In June of 2012, I had the pleasure to visit the installation with local resident Lothar Schubert, who was kind and patient enough to show me around. The concrete ring is easily spotted from the forest trail to the north of it, about 20 meters into the brushwood. The mast with the monitoring-antenna was probably located about 900 m (0.6 miles) due west of the ring, at the edge of a small wooded area. Ref. 103.

The ring has the standard 1.5 m width, with an inside diameter of about 20 meters. It is almost fully intact. The height of the ring is about 90-95 cm. The bottom 10-15 cm of the ring is covered by soil. The top of concrete ring is flat (unlike the ring at some other Bernhard installations, where it is rounded or chamfered). The concrete used is typical for the late-war period: lots of pebbles (unlimited supply), and little cement aggregate. The local soil is rather rocky, so there was no need for extensive foundation for the concrete ring and the central building; the foundation consists of 15-20 cm (6-9 inch) of coarse crushed rock.

Berhard station

Cross-section and top view of the concrete ring at Venusberg


For each set of bolts, there are two rectangular holes in the top of the concrete. They are at least 50 cm deep. These holes are fairly uniform in size, and measure 11-12 cm x 22-23 cm (≈4½x9 inch). The on-center distance between holes of the outside and inside track is 95-98 cm. Two steel rods stick out of each hole. The rods have a diameter of 20 mm (¾ inch) and are anchored in the base of the concrete ring. The part that sticks out above the ring is threaded (M20). The holes are not placed very accurately. However, as the upper part of the steel rods can be moved around, this is not an issue when installing the rails.

At every third tie, there is a square indentation of 17x17 cm, about 3 cm deep. Their purpose is not clear.

Berhard station

Top of the concrete ring


Berhard station

Pairs of threaded rods


The ring is made of reinforced concrete. Steel reinforcing bars (rebar) can be seen sticking out the side of the ring in several areas.

Berhard station

Steel reinforcement bars sticking out the side of the ring


Almost half of the round building at the center of the ring on the Venusberg hill was blown up by a Wehrmachtspioniereinheit on 16 April 1945, just ahead of the advancing French troops. There is not enough left of the door and window framing, to measure their dimensions. However, the destruction has nicely exposed the structure of the building! The top of the roof of this central building is 1.5 meter higher than the top of the concrete ring. This is driven by the height of the electric locomotives that moved the antenna system. The outside diameter of the building's wall is 3.9 meters (12.8 ft). The bottom of the concrete lintel across the door opening is 1.05 meter below the rooftop. The lintel itself is 28 cm high (11 inch). The size of the bricks in the wall varies: many are 6.5x11x16.5 cm, some are 6.5x12x25. The grout is 1.5 cm wide.

Berhard station

Central building - view from the north side


Berhard station

Central building - view from the east side


Berhard station

Central building - view from the southwest side


The round flat concrete roof normally extends well beyond the walls. This part of the roof is all gone, and only some of the curled steel rebar is left (sticking out about 17 cm, suggesting a roof diameter of about 4.3 m).

Berhard station

Steel reinforcement bars sticking out the side of what remains of the concrete roof


Berhard station

Grenade shrapnel impacts in the steel column and side of the doubler-plate


Berhard station

Heavy steel plates (24 mm, 1 inch !) simply shattered by explosion


There is a five meter long trench between the concrete ring and entrance door of the central building. The door opening is on the north side of the building, i.e., on the side of the nearest forest road. The walls of the trench are made of concrete and are 50 cm wide. The top of the trench walls is about 50 cm below the top of the ring. At the end closest to the ring, the trench had five stair-steps; there are concrete stringers (tread-supports), but the stair-treads (27 cm length) themselves are gone - perhaps they were made of wood, or otherwise easily removable.

Berhard station

The trench - looking from the concrete ring towards the round building and vice versa

(the wedge-shaped block in the middle was part of the trench wall)

The diagram below shows a cross-section of the ring and the round building at the center, based on my measurements:

Berhard station

Cross-section of the installation at Venusberg



The roof of the round building is supported by four columns, made of massive steel I-beams (H-beams, D: "Doppel T Träger"): the flanges are 30 cm (1 ft) wide and 24 mm (1 inch) thick! The web of the beams is 32 cm (12½ inch) wide and 15 mm (0.6 inch) thick. So these columns have a cross-section of 30x37 cm. The columns are spaced evenly in the round wall.

Berhard station

The major elements of the steel support structure of the round building


Like the concrete ring, the foundation of the central building is a layer of crushed rock. The foundation of the four columns is about 50 cm below that of the concrete ring. The floor of the building is a little over 1 m (3.5 ft) below what appears to be the sill of one of the building's side-windows. I.e., about 60 cm below the soil at the entrance of the building - well below the base of the concrete ring. Floor-to-ceiling height is about 2.5 m. The soil inside the building is about 1m2 (15 bricks at 6.5 cm + 1.5 cm grout) below the top of one of the window sills.


Berhard station

Details of the steel support structure


Berhard station

My measurements of the steel "skeleton" of the round building


The photo below shows a stub of one of the four smaller I-beams that make the top of the structure torsionally stiffer.

Berhard station


Berhard station

Top view of the steel support structure


The four joists are joined by two heavy octagonal mounting plates - one on top, one from below:

Berhard station

The octagonal mounting plate on top of the roof of the round building


Berhard station

A second octagonal mounting plate, against the ceiling of the round building


Berhard station

The octagonal mounting plate against the ceiling - with mounting brackets to suspend equipment


Berhard station

The octagonal mounting plate against the ceiling


There is a round hole at the center of the octagonal mounting plates. This is where a cylindrical shaft passed from the rotating antenna system above the round building, down to the equipment that was suspended from the brackets on the bottom octagonal plate. Underneath the hole, the four joists meet. The web of one of the I-beams is visible through the hole in the photo below. The opening between the joists is closed of by four vertical square plates that form a box (see the construction diagram further above).

Berhard station

One of the four doubler-plates (30x77 cm, 18 mm thick)


There is a doubler-plate on top of the joint of each column and the associated joist. These plates have the same width as the flanges of the main joists. The holes are not placed very accurately.

Berhard station

One of the four doubler-plates (30x77 cm, 18 mm thick)


Besides the concrete ring with its central building, there are two ancillary buildings at the Venusberg site. The first one is about 50 m to the east of the concrete ring and is basically still intact. It is set back a little farther from the forest road. The second building is almost 150 m to the east of the concrete ring, and only its outer walls are left standing. I have not found evidence of a cable trench between either of these buildings and the ring... In the same area, there are remnants of a bunker, wooden cabin, a concrete slab of about 4x4 m to the southeast of the ring, and a concrete "box" (probably a flak site) on the north side of the Venusberg - overlooking the Lehenweiler part of Aidlingen.

Berhard station

The location of the ancillary buildings, relative to the concrete ring


The building marked with "1" in the image above, has a barn door on the north side. The walls are made of brick (red inside). The roof is made of reinforced concrete, and has no support other than the outside walls. The concrete roof sticks out beyond the walls. In some areas, the overhang has disappeared and curled-back rebar is sticking out. There are no inside walls. The floor is one large concrete slab. The entrance door is on the side. This entrance is protected by a heavy wall and concrete roof.

Berhard station

Simplified floorplan of ancillary building 1


Berhard station

The north side of ancillary building 1 - with a cameo appearance of Lino

(photo ©2011 Lothar Schubert; used with permission)

Berhard station

The side-entrance of ancillary building 1


Berhard station

The edge of the concrete roof of building 1


Berhard station

Simplified floorplan of ancillary building 2


Berhard station

North entrance of building 2


Berhard station

Looking from the south entrance to the north entrance of building 2


In the middle of the building, there is a rectangular concrete slab that measures 1.4 x 3.25 meters (4.6x10.7 ft). The slab has 6 pairs of shallow round dimples, 8 and 10 cm in diameter. The purpose of the slab in unknown. Possibly the dimples corresponded to shock-absorbing mounting feet of a diesel-generator. The diesel engine may have been of French origin (ref. 103). On the south side of the slab, there is a rectangular hole in the foundation. It may be the access to a basement.

Berhard station

The concrete slab in the middle of ancillary building 2


My 3D stereopscopic photos of this "Bernhard" station are below.


BERNHARD INSTALLATION BE-15 AT BYTÓW (SZYMBARK, Poland)

Map

Bernhard installation Be-15 is located 2 km to the southeast of the village of Szymbark in Poland, in a area called Szwedzka Góra (Swedish hill). The location is often referred to as being near Bytów (Bütow), but that town is 40 km to the west of the actual Bernhard location. Possibly there was a Luftwaffe station or important German administrative facilities in or near Bytów...

Szymbark is also referred to as Schöneberg, which is its German name from when the area was the German province of Ostpreußen (Eastern Prussia), the most eastern and northern part of the Reich. It lies 40 km to the southwest of the Baltic coastal city of Gdańsk (Danzig).


Berhard station

The southwest side of the Bernhard ring at Szymbark, with a modern telecom tower

(photo: © Jacek Durych, used with permission)

Berhard station

Looking down from the telcom tower onto the Bernhard ring

(source: ©2005 Czarek Piotrowski, used with permission)

Berhard station

Side-view of the Bernhard ring at Szymbark

(source: ©2005 Czarek Piotrowski, used with permission)

Berhard station

Side-view of the Bernhard ring at Szymbark

(source: ©2005 Czarek Piotrowski, used with permission)

Berhard station

There are three rectangular "dimples" for each of the 120 rail-ties

(source: ©2005 Czarek Piotrowski, used with permission)

Berhard station

Holes at the base of the ring - unknown what their purpose is (drainage?)

(source: ©2005 Czarek Piotrowski, used with permission)

There are three concrete structures near the Bernhard ring, that appear to date back to the WW2 era: two square blocks, and a rectangular foundation. Their purpose is unknown.

Berhard station

The three original concrete structures near the ring

(source: ©2005 Czarek Piotrowski, used with permission)

Berhard station

One of the two concrete blocks

(source: ©2005 Czarek Piotrowski, used with permission)

Berhard station

The rectangular foundation with a smaller concrete rectangle that is capped

(source: ©2005 Czarek Piotrowski, used with permission)


BERNHARD INSTALLATION BE-16 AT HORNSTEIN (SONNENBERG, Austria)

Map

This Bernhard installation was located on the "Sonnenberg" hill (484 m above sea level), about half way between the towns of Hornstein and Eisenstadt, at the western end of the Leithage mountain range. This is about 40 km south of the capital Wien (Vienna).

There were about a dozen Luftwaffe aerodromes in the area, e.g., Wien-Aspern (44 km north of Hornstein), Wiener Neustadt (20 km southwest of Hornstein; incl. the largest Messerschmitt aircraft factory of the German Reich, Bad Vöslau (17 km northwest of Hornstein), Seyring (56 km north of Hornstein), Langenlebarn (60 km northwest), Schwechat-Ost (58 km northwest), and Parndorf (33 km northwest of Hornstein).

Construction of the installation (concrete foundations) was started in January of 1945. Only the concrete ring and the concrete foundation of a number of small buildings was completed by the end of the war. It appears that it may have been originally planned to be located on the Bisamberg plateau, about 12 km north-northwest of Vienna (Wien), as suggested by the Luftnachrichten map shown below. The Sonnenberg location is about 40 km south of Vienna. The Bernhard station was a late addition to the Fighter Control Station (Jägerleitstelle) with codename "Selma", also located on the "Sonnenberg" (see the map and satellite image below). The station already had three FuMG 401 LZ A "Freya" early-warning radar systems (range ca. 80-150 km, VHF - ca. 125 MHz, later ca. 160 MHz) and four FuSAn 733 "Y-System" fighter guidance ground stations (a.k.a. "Wotan II" and "Benito").

Berhard station

Map of Luftnachrichtenanlagen (Luftwaffe Signal Corps installations) around Vienna


Berhard station

Satellite image of the Hornstein site area (ca. 2013)

(small green squares ±1.4 km northwest of the Be-16: remnants of FuSan 733 "Y-System" ground stations of "Selma")

Berhard station

The concrete ring, some time after the war

(source: © estate of Franz Raimann)

Berhard station

Remains of the Bernhard ring on the Sonnenberg

(source: ©2013 Jacek Durych; used with permission)

Berhard station

Remains of the Bernhard ring on the Sonnenberg

(source: ©2013 Jacek Durych; used with permission)

Berhard station

Remains of the foundation of a barrack next to the ring - cable trenches go from there to the ring

(source: ©2000 M. Schmitzbergergeheimprojekte.at, used with permission)

Berhard station

Rectangular concrete slab in a corner of the above barrack - purpose unknown

(source: ©2000 M. Schmitzberger geheimprojekte.at, used with permission)

The following photo shows a large square concrete slab, located about 200 m from the Bernhard ring. It is unclear if this is the 3x3 m foundation of the monitoring-antenna mast, or the (larger) foundation of an observation tower.

Berhard station

Square concrete slab, about 200 m from the concrete ring

(source: ©2000 M. Schmitzberger geheimprojekte.at, used with permission)

Berhard station

Corner of the square concrete slab, about 200 m from the concrete ring

(source: ref. 165)

Berhard station

Rotating antenna of the FuMG 401 LZ A "Freya" on the Sonnenberg

(source: © private collection of Günther Stefanits)


3D / STEREOSCOPIC PHOTOS OF "BERNHARD" STATIONS

3D

You will need a pair of red+green glasses to view these images in 3D!

Berhard station

Anaglyph 3D/stereoscopic photo of the Bernhard site at La Pernelle

(original left & right images: p. 4.09 in ref. 13; full-size image is here; side-by-side stereogram is here)

3D photos below have not been made with my Stereo Realist stereoscopic camera, but by sequentially taking two pictures with my digital snapshot camera (laterally displaced ≈ 6.3 cm (2½") between the left & right shot). I have converted the stereo-pair photos into red/green anaglyphic 3D images, with StereoMaker (freeware). I have made hundreds of stereoscopic photos over the years. 3D photos that I made of my Hellschreiber machines and German WWII equipment are on this page. A selection of my 3D photos of other subjects (airplanes, animals, ...) is on this page.

Berhard station

Access to the central building of the Bernhard station at Aidlingen/Venusberg


Berhard station

The central building of the Bernhard station at Aidlingen/Venusberg


Berhard station

The octagonal mounting plate on top of the central building at Aidlingen/Venusberg


Berhard station

The central building of the Bernhard station at Arcachon/Teste de Buch


Berhard station

The central building of the Bernhard station at Arcachon/Teste de Buch


Berhard station

The circular track of the Bernhard station at Arcachon/Teste de Buch



UNKNOWN / UNCONFIRMED / UNCLEAR ASPECTS

The following aspects of Be-1 to Be-16 are still unknown, unconfirmed, and/or unclear (to me):

  • What is the Be-number of  the Bernhard at Aidlingen/Venusberg and Buke?
  • La Pernelle: Be-7 or Be-4 (Be-4 currently assigned to Le-Bois-Julien, but a Luftnachrichten map suggests La Pernelle is Be-4)?
  • What is the function of the three slots in the concrete sidewall of the round building at La Pernelle?
  • What is the identifier letter "Kennbuchstabe" (callsign) of all stations?
  • At La Pernelle, even in 1946, the four "doghouses" were still not removed/dismantled. Too hard to dismantle, or no usable material?
  • What is the purpose of the round holes on the inside of the concrete ring at Trzebnica/Trebnitz, and in the outside of the base of the the concrete ring at Szymbark?
  • What is the purpose of the several several small I-beams embedded into the concrete between some of the rail ties in the concrete ring at Arcachon?

If you have any additional information, please contact me!


REFERENCES

  • Ref. 2: pp. 76-110, 224 in "Die deutschen Funkführungsverfahren bis 1945", Fritz Trenkle, Alfred Hütig Verlag, 1987, ISBN 3778516477, 216 pp.
  • Ref. 3: pp. 94-102 in "Die deutschen Funk-Navigation und Funk-Führungsverfahren bis 1945", Fritz Trenkle, Motorbuch Verlag, 1995, 208 pp., ISBN-10: 3879436150.
  • Ref. 5: pp. "Instruments of Darkness: The History of Electronic Warfare, 1939-1945", new ed., Alfred Price, Greenhill Books publ., 2005, 272 pp., ISBN-10: 1853676160; original edition: William Kimber and Co., Ltd, 1967.
  • excellent German translation: "Herrschaft über die Nacht: Spionen jagen Radar", Alfred Price, publ.: Bertelsmann Sachbuchverlag Reinhard Mohn, 1968, 304 pp., ASIN B0000BT35X
  • Ref. 6: "G.A.F. Night Fighters - Recent Developments in German Night Fighting" [transcript], Air Ministry, Air Ministry, Assistant Director of Intelligence - Prisoner Interrogation, Wing Cmdr. S.D. Felkin, A.D.I. (K) Report No. 125/1945, January 1945, 18 pp.  [pdf]
  • Ref. 8: "Radio and Radar Equipment in the Luftwaffe - II, Navigational Aids" [transcript], Air Ministry, Assistant Director of Intelligence - Prisoner Interrogation, Wing Cmdr. S.D. Felkin, A.D.I. (K) Report No. 357/1945, 1945, 18 pp. Source: www.cdvandt.org
  • Ref. 13: "Japanese Electronics", OPNAV-16-VP101, Photographic Intelligence - Report 1, U.S. Naval Photographic Intelligence Center, January 1945, 166 pp. [33 MB]
  • Ref. 15: "Beschreibung und Betriebsvorschrift für Funk-Navigationsanlage FuG 120" [Description and Operating Manual for Radio-Navigation System FuG 120], Telefunken G.m.b.H., document FN-T-GB Nr. 1932, December 1944, 43 pp.  [30 MB]
  • Ref. 24: p. 200-204 in "Rotating beacons", Section 4.12 of "Radio Aids to Civil Navigation", Reginald Frederick Hansford (ed.), Heywood & Co. Ltd., 1960, 623 pp.
  • Ref. 74: "Blind landing and airborne communications equipment. Radio and Radar Equipment in the Luftwaffe - II", S.D. Felkin, Air Ministry Directorate of Intelligence, London/UK, A.D.I. (K) report no. 343/1945, July 1945, 6 pp.
  • Ref. 85: Files available in the company archive of the Deutsches Technikmuseum, Berlin/Germany:
  • Ref. 85C: "Materialsammlung zur Geschichte der Ortung, insbesondere Leitstrahl und Drehfunkfeuer "Bernhard" und "Bernhardine" (FuG 120)" [Material regarding the history of navigation, in particular beams, rotary beacon "Bernhard", and "Bernhardine" (FuG 120); technical description of beam-systems "Wotan I", "Wotan II" (X-System), "Knickebein" (Y-System); correspondence & documents about beam-systems and "Bernhard"/"Bernhardine", drawings of the "Bernhard" installation at Trebbin/Glau, technical description of the Telefunken rotary beacon (part 1) and system description ED1-4262 by A. Lohmann], in the company archive of the Deutsches Technikmuseum, Berlin/Germany, File I.2.060C (Fa. AEG-Telefunken), I-Num. 07823, 1942-1967
  • Ref. 89: "Le crash des Lt Simpson et Baker", Association "Forced Landing", 2003.  [pdf]
  • Ref. 90:
  • Ref. 90A: private message to me in March of 2015 in the Axis History Forum
  • Ref. 90B: pp. 21, 57, 58 in "Stations radar et radio-navigation sur le Mur de l'Atlantique - Spécial Normandie d'Antifer à Granville", Alain Chazette, Bernard Paich, Alain Destouches, Jacques Tomine, Jörg Poweleit, Michaël Svejgaard, Histoire & Fortifications, 2015, 96 pp
  • supplement: "Stations radar et de radio-navigation sur le Mur de l'Atlantique (complement photos)", 32 pp.
  • Ref. 90C: p. 161 in "Stations radar et radio-navigation sur le Mur de l'Atlantique - Volume 2 -Spécial Belgique - Nord - Pas-de-Calais - Picardie - Haute-Normandie", Alain Chazette, Bernard Paich, Pierre Nowak, Alain Destouches, Jacques Tomine, Ingrid Paindavoine, Histoire & Fortifications, 2016, 160 pp.
  • Ref. 90D: "Drawing of a Funk Sende Anlage Bernard 724/725 bunker", 14-March-2015 thread in Axis History Forum; used with permission
  • Ref. 90E: "German Military Symbols", U.S. War Dept., General Staff, Military Intelligence Service, January 1943, 152 pp. (public domain, no ©)
  • Ref. 91: pp. 60-69 in "Mémoires sans concessions", Yves Rocard, Grasset, 1988, 302 pp., ISBN-10: 2246411211
  • Ref. 93: pp. 116, 117 in "The High-Frequency War - A Survey of German Electronic Development", E.S. Henning, HQ Air Materiel Command (AFMC), Wright Field, Dayton/OH, Summary report No. F-SU-1109-ND, 4 June 1946
  • Ref. 94: "Exkursion zu Abwehranlage der Luftwaffe - Holzgerlinger Naturfreunde auf dem Aidlinger Venusberg: Überreste aus dem Zweiten Weltkrieg", in "Kreiszeitung Böblinger Bote" of 31-July-2014  [pdf]
  • Ref. 95: "Wie es damals war - Bau der "Radarstation" auf dem Venusberg - Wilhelm Bauer war als Kind dabei und erinnert sich", p. 17 in "Aidlinger Nachrichten", Nr. 18, 28 April 2015
  • Ref. 96: "No. 80 Wing Royal Air Force Historical Report 1940-1945", Narrative AIR41/46, Air Ministry and Ministry of Defence, Air Historical Branch, 1946
  • Ref. 97: Bild 16 in "Deutsche Funkmeßtechnik 1944: ein Vortrag von Leo Brandt, gehalten am 8. Februar 1944, zur Einführung der Zentimeter-Technik für das Funkmeßgebiet", Leo Brandt, Vol. 7 of Bücherei der Funkortung, Sonderheft, Verkehrs- und Wirtschafts-Verlag, 1956, 29 pp.
  • Ref. 98: "Organisation des systèmes de radionavigation de la Luftwaffe en Normandie en 1944" [The Organization of the Radio-Navigation Systems of the Luftwaffe in Normandy in 1944], Jean-François Salles, in "Revue historique des armées", No. 198, March 1995, pp. 77-88
  • Ref. 99 "Völlig in Vergessenheit geraten: Funkanlage bei Buke", Hans-Walter Wichert, in "Die Warte - Heimatzeitschrift für die Kreise Paderborn und Höxter", Nr. 24, December 1979, pp. 14-15, ISSN 0939-8686 (courtesy Mr. R. Gellhaus and H.-W. Wichert)
  • Ref. 100: pp. 12-13 in "Interpretation of Wireless Installations", Vol. VII of "Development of Photographic Intelligence", Directorate of Intelligence, US Air Force Headquarters, Washington D.C., 1945
  • Ref. 101: manuscript notes of Fritz Trenkle for "Verzeichnis deutscher Bordfunkgeräte aller Art (einschl. der mit FuG-Nr. belegten akustischen und UR-Geräte) 1935-1945" and "Entwurf zu Funkgeräte Katalog Deutschland 1908-1918 und 1919-1945"
  • Ref. 102: p. 695 in "Aidlingen, Lehenweiler, Dachtel und Deufringen: Beiträge zur Ortsgeschichte", D. Ade-Rademacher (ed.), Gemeinde Aidlingen (publ.), January 1999, 848 pp., ISBN-10: 300004521X, ISBN-13: 9783000045219
  • Ref. 103: "Aidlingen Venusberg", web-page of Forschungsgruppe Untertage e.V. [pdf] Also part of "Pressebericht Tageswanderung zum Venusberg", Reiner Schopf, p. 28 in "Stadt Holzerlingen Nachrichtenblatt", 1 August 2014.
  • Ref. 104: "Vom Stadtboten zur Informationsgesellschaft: Post- und Kommunikationsgeschichte in Paderborn und Ostwestfalen-Lippe", Norbert Börste (Publ.), Schriftenreihe des Fördervereins des Historischen Museums im Marshall von Paderborn, 2002, 271 pp., ISBN 3897102366
  • Ref. 105: "Bernhard"-thread in the forum of geschichtsspuren.de, 2003-2013 [pdf]
  • Ref. 106: "La Station de Radioguidage B8 sur le Mont Saint Michel de Braspart (Bretagne - FR)", G. Tomezzoli, Ph. Dupont (used with permission of the author).
  • Ref. 106A: An abridged version was published in German as "Die Drehfunkfeueranlage Bernhard auf dem Mont St. Michel de Braspart (F)", G. Tomezzoli, Ph. Dupont, in "DAWA (Deutsches Atlantikwall Archiv) Nachrichten", Nr. 57, 1 Feb. 2011.  See note 1
  • Ref. 107: p. 48 in "Bodenfunkmessgeräte der deutschen Luftwaffe bis 1945", Werner Müller, Band 132 of the series "Waffen-Arsenal - Waffen und Fahrzeuge der Heere und Luftstreitkräfte", Podzun-Pallas-Verlag, 1992, 50 pp.  See note 1
  • Ref. 108: "Quatre ans d'occupation pour la vigie du Val-de-Saire : 1940-1944 : La Pernelle, H.K.A.A. 1261, 9 et 10", Yannick Rose, Alençon A.C.R.E.D.I.C. Publ., 2nd. ed., 1990, 68 pp.
  • Ref. 109: "British Army Photographic Intelligence Section (APIS) - Photographic intelligence for operation 'Overlord'" (the invasion of France) - La Pernelle:
  • Ref. 109A: Imperial War Museums (IWM) catalogue number MH 24808: "Low oblique of a 17 cm heavy gun in a hedgerow near la Pernelle. This photograph, taken during a reconnaissance sortie over the 'Bernhard' radio navigational station, led to the discovery of a camouflaged battery at the site"
  • Ref. 109B: Imperial War Museums (IWM) catalogue number MH 24809: "The gun battery at la Pernelle after air and naval bombardment. The 'Bernhard' antenna of the adjacent radio navigational station can be seen at the road junction, top left."
  • Ref. 109C: Imperial War Museums (IWM) catalogue number MH 24856: "Oblique aerial of the radio navigational station at la Pernelle under air bombardment. The 'Bernhard' antenna can be seen middle right, and in the right foreground is the destroyed gun battery"
  • Ref. 110: "The Century of Radar - from Christian Hülsemeyer to Shuttle Radar Topography Mission", Wolfgang Holpp, German Radar Symposium, Bonn, 2002; 2004 update, 27 pp. [pdf] The German version of this article is here.  [pdf]
  • Ref. 111: "La vierge célébrée à la Butte", in "L'Union Ardennais" (newspaper), 21 August 2008
  • Ref. 112: "To vigtige punkter på egnen" ["Two important points in the area"], Morten Binderup, pp. 125-128 in "Historisk Årbog for Thy og Vester Hanherred", 1992 (1992 Historical Yearbook of Thy and West Hanherred)  [pdf]
  • Ref. 113: "Le CSTEI : du radar allemand au satellite…", Centre spécialisé des télécommunications et de l’informatique (CSTEI) de Favières, Dossier de presse M3 Favières, Délégation à l’Information et à la Communication de la Défense (DICoD), 2006, 4 pp.
  • Ref. 114: page 37 in "Denkmalschutz und Fremdenverkehr", M. Klawitter, pp. 36-37 in "Die Warte - Heimatzeitschrift für die Kreise Paderborn und Höxter". Nr. 23, November 1979, ISSN 0939-8686
  • Ref. 115: Drawing of the cross-section of the Bernhard at Hundborg/Gåsbjerg hill, Jens Salmonson, 1982, source: Hundborg Lokalhistoriske Arkiv, used with permission.
  • Ref. 116: personal mail exchanges with L. Sourisseau about eyewittness account, 14-24 October 2013.
  • Ref. 117: "Gefährliches Funkfeuer auf dem Venusberg", M. Weigert, in "Kreiszeitung Böblinger Bote", 8 Sept 2009
  • Ref. 118: plate 15 in "Most Secret War", R.V. Jones, Hamish Hamilton, 1978, 576 pp.  See note 1 
  • Ref. 119: "1939, Husum wieder Soldatenstadt", Jürgen Dietrich, 8 pp. in "300 Jahre Garnisonsstadt Husum - 50 Jahre Bundeswehrstandort", H. Hünken, H. Sehnert (eds.), 2006, 73 pp.  [pdf]
  • Ref. 120: personal correspondence with R. Grzywatz, February 2014.
  • Ref. 127: "Vliegveld Bergen NH 1938-1940", J.H. Schuurman, A.W. de Poel (ed.), Uitgeverij De Coogh, 2001, 336 pp., ISBN 9075440049
  • Ref. 128: personal correspondence with Y. Rose, December 2013 - April 2014
  • Ref. 129: "Trzebnica *Raszów*", source: RadioPolska website
  • Ref. 130: 1944 map of "Luftnachrichten-Stellungen" [Signal Corps sites]
  • Ref. 131: "Exkursion zu Abwehranlage der Luftwaffe", in "Kreiszeitung Böblinger Bote", 31 July 2014.
  • Ref. 132:
  • Ref. 132A: "Luftverteidigungszone West" page of Forschungsgruppe Untertage e.V.  [pdf]
  • Ref. 132B: "Fliegerhorste - und Einsatzhäfen der Luftwaffe"
  • Ref. 132C: "Luftwaffe Airfields 1935-1945", Henry L. deZeng   [pdf]
  • Ref. 132D: Brief biography of Lieutenant General Karl Kitzinger, Landeskunde entdecken online Baden-Württemberg (LEO-BW), Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg  [pdf]
  • Ref. 132E: "UK airfield listing" (RAF and USAF)
  • Ref. 132F: "Flugplätze der Luftwaffe 1934 - 1945 und was davon übrig blieb - Gesamtverzeichnis", Jürgen Zapf, 2010, 568 pp.
  • Ref. 132G: "Luftwaffe night fighter control methods", Michaël Svejgaard  [pdf]
  • Ref. 132H: Airfields of Britain Conservation Trust
  • Ref. 133: "Skoda Works, Pilsen, Czecho-Slovakia", British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee (BIOS), Final Report No. 43, Item No. 2, 1945, 12 pp.; source: www.cdvandt.org
  • Ref. 134: p. 136 in "American Raiders: The Race to Capture the Luftwaffe's Secrets", Wolfgang W. E. Samuel, University Press of Mississippi, 2004, 513 pp.
  • Ref. 135: "Bernard bij Schoorl", trip report on www.forten.info.nl by Marco Spijker, 2006 [pdf]
  • Ref. 136: "Nachtjagdnavigationskarte - herausgegeben von Nachtjagdgruppe 3-NO" [night-fighter navigation chart issued by Night Fighter Group 3-NO]
  • Ref. 165: "Deckname "Selma" & "Bernhard"", website "Geheimes & Unbekanntes Österreich", 2014 [pdf]
  • Ref. 172:  copy of item in file AIR 29/284 "Central Interpretation Unit (CIU) Medmenham; Interpretation reports and aerial photos (1943)". Item is  in the collection of The National Archives; material with UK Crown Copyright, used in accordance with the Open Government License [pdf].
  • Summary of the contents of ref. 172A.
  • Ref. 172A: "German “Windjammer” R.D.F. Stations", part of "Monthly interpretation review for July 1943", 7 pp.
  • Ref. 173: copy of items in file AIR 14/3577 "Signals investigation on 27 to 35 Mc/s "Windjammer" (1943/1944)". Items are  in the collection of The National Archives; material with UK Crown Copyright, used in accordance with the Open Government License [pdf].
  • Summary of the contents of ref. 173A-173E.
  • Ref. 173A: "'Windjammer" observation", by R.A. Fareday (Noise Investigation Bureau [Electronic Intelligence], N.I.B., London), dated 20th June 1944, 1 page.
  • Ref. 173B: ""Possible "Windjammer" transmissions", report by Flight Lieutenant Douglas of 192 Sq., dated 16th December 1943, 1 page.
  • Ref. 173C: "192 Squadron Flight report No. 215/43" by F/Lt Robinson to Squadron Leader Burtler, dated 15th November 1943 (actual report by P/O G.F. Evans of 13th November 1943), 6 pages.
  • Ref. 173D: "Windjammer – Arcachon", letter from Air Ministry A.I.4. [intelligence branch section supervising RAF Y Service] to Commanding Officer of 192 Squadron, dated 16th July 1943, 1 page + 1 aerial photo.
  • Ref. 173E: "The windjammer and Dreh-Elektra", by 192 Squadron Leader J. Whitehead, dated 18th June 1943, 1 page.
  • Ref. 174:  copy of items in file AIR 14/3594 ""Windjammer" station: photographs and interpretation reports. Includes vertical and low oblique aerial photographs of 'Windjammer' radar sites in Germany and France (1943/1944)". Items are in the collection of The National Archives; material with UK Crown Copyright, used in accordance with the Open Government License [pdf].
  • Summary of the contents of ref. 174A-174J.
  • Ref. 174A: Letter entitled "W/T Bergen/Belvedere" by Squadron Leader C.W. Swanell on behalf of the Group Captain commanding R.A.F. Station Medmenham to R.V. Jones (A.D.I. Science), dated 9th April 1943, 1 page + 1 photo
  • Ref. 174B: Aerial photo of station "Bergen/Belvedere" [The Netherlands], photo No. 3022, taken 22rd March 1943 by 541 Squadron
  • Ref. 174C: Letter entitled "W/T – Bergen/Belvedere" by Group Captain commanding R.A.F. Station Medmenham to R.V. Jones (A.D.I. Science), dated 9th April 1943, 1 page. (note: photos referenced in letter not on file)
  • Ref. 174D: Letter entitled "W/T Desvres/Le Bois Julien" on behalf of Group Captain commanding R.A.F. Station Medmenham to R.V. Jones (A.D.I. Science), dated 15th November 1942, 1 page + 2 photos.
  • Ref. 174E: Letter entitled "W/T: Desvres/Le Bois Julien" on behalf of Group Captain commanding R.A.F. Station Medmenham to R.V. Jones (A.D.I. Science), dated 29th March 1943, 1 page + 1 photo.
  • Ref. 174F: "Interpretation Report No. G. 308" dated 28th June 1942, of aerial photos taken over Desvres/Le-Bois-Julien at altitude of 20k ft during Sortie A/945 on 20th June 1942, 1 page + 1 photo.
  • Ref. 174G: "Interpretation report No. G.590" dated 6th October 1942, of aerial photo taken over locality Morlaix, W/T station Mt. St. Michel, at altitude of 12k ft during Sortie Q/21 on 24th September 1942, 2 pages + 1 photo.
  • Ref. 174H: Letter entitled "W/T: Pouzauges/St.Michel-Mont-Mercure" on behalf of Group Captain commanding R.A.F. Station Medmenham to Squadron Leader Whitehead (A.I.4), dated 29th March 1943, 1 page + 3 photos.
  • Ref. 174J: Photos No. 4065 and 4066 of station at St. Vaast / La Pernelle, taken 31st March 1943 from off shore. [station is fully, though vaguely, visible on horizon]
  • Ref. 176: post-war correspondence [in German] between Mr. Kurt Pfaender (frmr. Telefunken employee) and Telefunken, as well as Telefunken-internal, regarding past wages (back pay) and reimbursement of expenses incurred by Mr. Pfaender for transportation of Telefunken equipment  from Trebbin to a site near Hannover, during February & March of 1945; source: corporate archives of DTM Berlin, part of file nr. I.2.060C-00499:
  • Ref. 176A: Letter from Mr. Kurt Pfaender to the HR office of Telefunken in Berlin, with claims; dated 15 November 1950, 1 p.
  • Ref. 176B: Letter from Mr. Albrecht Leyn (Telefunken/Hannover) to Mr. Gothe (Telefunken/Berlin), recollecting payments of bills & sale of items to Mr. Pfaender; dated 18 September 1951, 2 pp.
  • Ref. 176C: Telefunken memo about conversation with Mr. Pfaender on 20 December 1951, regarding claims of the latter; dated 27 December 1951, 1 p.
  • Ref. 176D: Letter from Kurt Pfaender to Telefunken in Berlin, describing the course of events; dated 12 January 1952, 2 pp.
  • Ref. 177: post-war letters  [in German] from the company "Hein, Lehmann & Co. Eisenkonstruktionen, Brücken- und Signalbau K.-G." in Berlin-Tempelhof to Telefunken in Berlin, with claims ("Altforderungen") regarding delivery and installation of various types of antenna systems (arrays, tube & lattice masts, wooden masts, metal-clad wooden huts, verticals, dishes, turntables, for "Bernhard", "Marius", "Marius II", "Uran II", "Forsthaus-KF", etc.), installations in Germany, Hungary, Monte Carlo, Croatia, etc., during the period of July 1942 through the end of the war (8 May 1945); source: corporate archives of DTM Berlin, I.2.060C-00541:
  • Ref. 177A: Letter from Hein, Lehmann & Co. to Telefunken with payment status of 17 Telefunken purchase orders and the resulting outstanding significant claim; dated 19 June 1949, 2 pp.
  • Ref. 177B: Letter from Hein, Lehmann & Co. to Telefunken with adjusted claims, based on assessment of Telefunken counter-claims; dated 19 June 1950, 8 pp.
  • Ref. 177C: Letter from Hein, Lehmann & Co. to Telefunken, with further justification for claims regarding delivery & installation of 12 "Bernhard" antenna systems (against purchase order of July 1941) for Be-2 - Be-8 and Be-12, of 6 associated "Dioden-Masten" antenna masts (based on price quote of September 1941), and delivery (without installation) of the antenna systems of Be-1 and Be-9 - Be-11; dated 5 February 1951, 3 pp.
  • Ref. 178: Reichsmark vs. US Dollar and Euro exchange and equivalency data:
  • Ref. 178A: "Deutsche Bundesbank - Average Currency Exchange Rates 1908-1951 Mark / Reichsmark / Deutsche Mark (M/RM/DM) vs. France FRF / Austria K, S / USA $ / UK £ / Netherlands HFL", Vs 801, 12 pp. [pdf]
  • Ref. 178B: source of US dollar inflation (CPI, buying power) calculator:  http://www.usinflationcalculator.com/.
  • Ref. 178C: Tabulated exchange rate of Reichsmark to US$, with conversion to 2016 US$ and Euro, Frank Dörenberg, 21 May 2017.
  • Ref. 179: Draft presentation notes to the General-Nachrichtenführer, dated 3-Sept-1944, covers original plans for geographic coverage (France, German Reich) with Bernhard stations, state of completion of the various stations, status of introduction of the Bernhard/Bernhardine method for nightfighters (Nachtjagd), status of delivery of various types of Bernhardine printers; signed by Hauptmann Franz, 3 pp.; source: entry in 3-May-2017 in forum thread of www.geschichtsspuren.de.
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External links last checked: December 2015


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