Below are examples of sounds from digital radio modes on short wave. More info on most of these modes is provided further down on this page. These recordings can be used to test your digi-mode decoding software and receiver-PC interface.
Note: this page uses HTML5 for playing audio. This is supported by modern browsers. If your browser does not support HTML5, no player controls will be shown. Instead, links are provided to each sound-clip in mp3, wav, and ogg format. You can play them with your favorite player. Also note that the "looks" of the player depend on your browser. I still have to convert this page to a single player-instantiation with a play-list (this is on my loooong "to do" list).
- [Hellschreiber modes]
- [FSK modes]
- [PSK modes]
- ["Morse code" - CW]
- [Picture transmission modes ]
- [Digital Voice modes
- [Weather fax & Reports]
- [Aviation, Navigation, Government, Utilities]
- [Digital Broadcast]
Does the waterfall display of your digi-mode software look like the one below, even with your antenna disconnected?
I had this problem up to 8-10 MHz! Here is my 2014 write-up about how I fixed it: Equipment bonding and laptop power-adapter filtering for receiver noise reduction". Other notorious sources of such noise are plasma TVs (your own or from your neighbors), cheap PLCs ("internet via powerline" network adapters), LED and CFL (compact fluorescent) "energy saver" lamps (built-in switching power supply), light dimmers, and even your wireless PC-mouse. The minimum to install is an AC line-filter for your radio equipment and ferrite chokes on all your audio and data cables.
For everything related to Hellschreiber, see my Hellschreiber website.
Feld-Hell ("The quick brown fox...")
Feld-Hell QSO (18 min):Weekly Sunday European Hell Net. Recorded on 14-Sept-2008 by Bill, KA8VIT via a Web-SDR in The Netherlands.
Hell-72 "GL" character set(sorry, the sound of my machine is a little scratchy).
Hell-80 QSO (multi-station)Both start-stop and synchronous transmissions, recorded on 1-Mar-2010 around 7050 kHz.
Hell-80: synchronous mode(basically double-speed Feld-Hell mode, not start-stop).
Hell-80: QSO in start-stop mode (Part 1)Recorded on 24-Jan-2011. Click here for a scan of the associated paper tape print-out.
Hell-80: QSO in start-stop mode (Final)Recorded on 24-Jan-2011.
Thomson Hellschreiber - character setCan be printed with Feld-Hell machine/software (set to about 1250 Hz), or in Hell-FM105/254 mode ("space" tone set to 1325 Hz ).
C/MT-HellText appears in waterfall display.
SlowFeldSpeed: 3 characters/min (50x slower than regular Feld-Hell).
FREQUENCY-SHIFT KEYING (FSK) MODES
Radio Teletype (RTTY, "ritty")170 Hz shift, 45.45 Bd
Radio Teletype (RTTY)170 Hz shift, 50 Bd
Radio Teletype (RTTY)425 Hz shift, 50 Bd
Radio Teletype (RTTY)850 Hz shift, 50 Bd
SYNOP/SHIP450 Hz shift, 50 Bd; Weather synopsis data from station DDK9 (Germany) on 10100 kHz; recorded 5-Apr-2010.
Telex Over Radio (TOR)PACTOR R 200 Bd
Telex Over Radio (TOR)PACTOR II
Telex Over Radio (TOR)Amateur PACTOR FEC (FEC = Forward Error Correction)
Telex Over Radio (TOR)AMTOR ARQ (ARQ = Automatic Repeat Request)
Telex Over Radio (TOR)AMTOR FEC
Telex Over Radio (TOR)Amateur G-TOR
Telex Over Radio (TOR)Swedish ARQ.
Simplex Telex Over Radio (SITOR)SITOR-A ( = ARQ) = AMTOR
Simplex Telex Over Radio (SITOR)SITOR-A Marker
Simplex Telex Over Radio (SITOR)SITOR-B ( = FEC) = NAVTEX
PACKETAX25, 300 Bd
PACKETAX25, 300 Bd; second example
Voice-Frequency RTTY (VFT)Comprises 16 closely packed RTTY signal pairs.
Voice-Frequency RTTY (VFT)US Air Force
MULTI-FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (MFSK) MODES (more info on these modes is here)
MFSK88 tones; text: "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog ..."
MFSK1616 tones; text: "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog ..."
MFSK1616 tones; second example.
MFSK1616 tones; amateur radio QSO.
Olivia 125-4A spread-spectrum AFSK TOR FEC mode
PHASE SHIFT KEYING (PSK) MODES
PSK31More info here: www.psk31.com
"MORSE CODE" CW
ARRL/W1AW code practice files (various speeds) are here (ARRL website).
CWSpeed = 5 WMP
CWSpeed = 12 WMP
CWSpeed = 17 WMP
CWSpeed = 21 WMP
Coherent CWMS25 and ET 1 calling CQ; standard bandwidth: 9 Hz (!) at 12 WPM
PICTURE TRANSMISSION MODES (SSTV, NBTV)
Slow-Scan Television (SSTV)Scotty1 format
Slow-Scan Television (SSTV)Martin1 format
Slow-Scan Television (SSTV)Another example
Slow-Scan Television (SSTV)Another example
Narrow-Band television (NBTV)Sequence of 4 images
NBTV is originally from the 1920-1930s, still used today by a few amateurs; transmission has 10 kHz bandwidth. More info on this mode here (nbtv.org) and here.
DIGITAL VOICE MODES
D-STARDigital - Smart Technologies for Amateur Radio
MOTOTRBOMotorola Digital Two-Way Radio, compatible with Digital Mobile Radio (DMR) Tier 2 standard
WEATHER FAX AND REPORTS
Weather Facsimile (WEFAX)Recorded on 7878.1 kHz, USB, 120 lines/minute; weather station
RTTY SYNOP weather report450 Hz shift, 50 Bd
AVIATION, NAVIGATION, GOVERNMENT, UTILITIES
Non-Directional Beacon (NDB)These aviation navigation beacons are in the 190-1750 kHz frequency band (190-1535 kHz in the USA)
DECCAHF radio navigation system
LORAN-CLong-range radio navigation system
ACARSAircraft Communications Addressing & Reporting System
GMDSSSpeed: 3 characters/min (50x slower than regular Feld-Hell).
Hyperbolic Radio Navigation System
SELCALICAO Aeronautical Selective Calling
SELCAL Link-Availability Sounder
DCF77German long-wave time station signal on 77.5 kHz
Digital Voice scramblingUS government/military
Differential-GPSMinimum Shift Keying
Differential-GPSQuaternary Phase Shift Keying
OTHRMilitary Over-The-Horizon Radar
HAARPHigh-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program
DIGITAL BROADCAST (Long/Medium/Shortwave bands, AM)
DRMDigital Radio Mondiale; IF sample of Radio Luxemburg, 6095 kHz
LINKS TO OTHER WEBSITES WITH RADIO SOUND SAMPLES
External links last checked: September 2015
- Signal Identification Guide - sigidwiki.com
AUDIO SPECTRUM OF VARIOUS MODES
"Waterfall display" audio spectrum, left to right: simultaneous Hellschreiber, MFSK, and RTTY signals
Hell 72 GL
(blue: "space" tone only; yellow: "mark" & "space" during character transmission)
RTTY - 170 Hz shift
RTTY - 170 Hz shift, 45.45 Bd
RTTY - 425 Hz shift
RTTY - 850 Hz shift
SSTV - Scotty1
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF SEVERAL MODES
The mode descriptions below are taken from NB6Z's web page on digital ham radio.
TOR is an acronym for Teleprinting Over Radio. It is traditionally used to describe the three popular "error free" operating modes, AMTOR, PACTOR and G-TOR. The main method for error correction is from a technique called ARQ (automatic repeat request) which is sent by the receiving station to verify any missed data. Since they share the same method of transmission (FSK), they can be economically provided together in one TNC modem and easily operated with any modern radio transceiver. TOR methods that do not use the ARQ hand-shake can be easily operated with readily available software programs for personal computers. For these less complex modes, the TNC (terminal node controller) is replaced by an on-board sound card or out-board audio device. These modes may use redundancy or "human processing" to achieve a level of error correction.
AMTOR is an FSK mode that has been fading into history. While a robust mode, it only has 5 bits (as did its predecessor RTTY) and can not transfer extended ASCII or any binary data. With a set operating rate of 100 baud, it does not effectively compete with the speed and error correction of more modern ARQ modes. The non-ARQ version of this mode is known as FEC, and known as SITOR-B by the Marine Information services.
PACTOR is an FSK mode and is a standard on modern TNCs. It is designed with a combination of packet and Amtor Techniques. It is the most popular ARQ digital mode on amateur HF today. This mode is a major advancement over AMTOR, with its 200 baud operating rate, Huffman compression technique and true binary data transfer capability; more info here
PACTOR II is a robust and powerful PSK mode which operates well under varying conditions. It uses strong logic, automatic frequency tracking; it is DSP based and as much as 8 times faster then Pactor. Both PACTOR and PACTOR-2 use the same protocol handshake, making the modes compatible; more info here.
PACTOR-III is a proprietary mode used for message and traffic handling over an HF radio circuit. Use of Pactor-III protocol is limmitted for US hams and some other countries due to the very wide bandwidth of the Pactor-III signal. Presently digital signals that occupy the bandwidth of PCT-III are restricted to a few sub bands: 28.120-28.189 MHz, 24.925-24.930 MHz, 21.090-21.100 MHz, 18.105-18.110 MHz, 14.0950-14.0995 MHz, 14.1005-14.112 MHz, 10.140-10.150 MHz, 7.100-7.105 MHz, or 3.620-3.635 MHz. Only the embedded hardware (modem) from the German company that owns the rights to this mode, is capable of operating Pactor-III.
G-TOR (Golay -TOR) is an FSK mode that offers a fast transfer rate compared to Pactor. It incorporates a data inter-leaving system that assists in minimizing the effects of atmospheric noise and has the ability to fix garbled data. G-tor tries to perform all transmissions at 300 baud but drops to 200 baud if difficulties are encountered and finally to 100 baud. (The protocol that brought back those good photos of Saturn and Jupiter from the Voyager space shots was devised by M. Golay and now adapted for ham radio use.)
CLOVER is a PSK mode which provides a full duplex simulation. It is well suited for HF operation (especially under good conditions), however, there are differences between CLOVER modems. The original modem was named CLOVER-I, the latest DSP based modem is named CLOVER-II. Clovers key characteristics are band-width efficiency with high error-corrected data rates. Clover adapts to conditions by constantly monitoring the received signal. Based on this monitoring, Clover determines the best modulation scheme to use.
RTTY or "Radio Teletype" is a FSK mode that has been in use longer than any other digital mode (except for Morse code). RTTY is a very simple technique which uses a five-bit code to represent all the letters of the alphabet, the numbers, some punctuation and some control characters. At 45 baud (typically) each bit is 1/45.45 seconds long, or 22 msec and corresponds to a typing speed of 60 WPM. There is no error correction provided in RTTY; noise and interference can have a seriously detrimental effect. Despite it's relative disadvantages, RTTY is still popular with die-hard operators.
PSK31 is the first new digital mode to find popularity on HF bands in many years. It combines the advantages of a simple variable length text code with a narrow bandwidth phase-shift keying (PSK) signal using DSP techniques. This mode is designed for "real time" keyboard operation and at a 31 baud rate is only fast enough to keep up with the typical amateur typist. PSK31 enjoys great popularity on the HF bands today and is presently the standard for live keyboard communications. Most of the ASCII characters are supported. A second version having four (quad) phase shifts (QPSK) is available that provides Forward Error Correction (FEC) at the cost of reduced Signal to Noise ratio.
HF PACKET radio is an FSK mode that is an adaption of the very popular Packet radio used on VHF FM ham radio. Although the HF version of Packet Radio has a much reduced bandwidth due to the noise levels associated with HF operation, it maintains the same protocols and ability to "node" many stations on one frequency. Even with the reduced bandwidth (300 baud rate), this mode is unreliable for general HF ham communications and is mainly used to pass routine traffic and data between areas where VHF repeaters maybe lacking.
HELLSCHREIBER is a method of sending and receiving text using facsimile technology. This mode has been around along time; the recent use of PC sound cards as DSP units has increased the interest in Hellschreiber. The single-tone version (Feld-Hell) is the method of choice for HF operation. It is an on-off keyed system with 122.5 dots/second, or about a 35 WPM text rate, with a narrow bandwidth (about 75 Hz). Text characters are "painted" on the screen, as apposed to being decoded and printed. A new "designer" flavor of this mode called FM HELL has some advantage for providing better quality print, at the expense of a greater duty cycle. As with other "fuzzy modes" it has the advantage of using the "human processor" for error correction.
MT63 is a new DSP based mode for sending keyboard text over paths that experience fading and interference from other signals. It is accomplished by a complex scheme to encode text in a matrix of 64 tones over time and frequency. This overkill method provides a "cushion" of error correction at the receiving end while still providing a 100 WPM rate. The wide bandwidth (1 kHz for the standard method) makes this mode less desirable on crowded ham bands such as 20 meters.
MFSK16 is an advancement to the THROB mode and encodes 16 tones. The PC sound card for DSP uses Fast Fourier Transform technology to decode the ASCII characters, and Constant Phase Frequency Shift Keying to send the coded signal. Continuous Forward Error Correction (FEC) sends all data twice with an interleaving technique to reduce errors from impulse noise and static crashes. A new improved Varicode is used to increase the efficiency of sending extended ASCII characters, making it possible to transfer short data files between stations under fair to good conditions. Similar to SSTV, small images can be transferred (typ. 170x128 pixels). The relatively wide bandwidth (316 Hz) for this mode allows higher baud rates (typing is about 42 WPM) and greater immunity to multi path phase shift. This mode is becoming a standard for reliable keyboard-to-keyboard operation and is available in several popular programs. More info on this mode here.
THROB is yet another new DSP sound card mode that attempts to use Fast Fourier Transform technology (as used by waterfall displays) to decode a 5 tone signal. It was authored by Lionel Sear, G3PPT. The THROB program is an attempt to push DSP into the area where other methods fail because of sensitivity or propagation difficulties and at the same time work at a reasonable speed. There are 1, 2, or 4 throbs per second, resulting in a text speed that is lower than other modes.
OLIVIA is a digital MFSK mode that is highly resistant to QSB (fading) and noise (QRM). It was created in 2005 by Pawel Jalocha (SP9VRC). Actually, it is a combination of MFSK and Forward Error Correction (FEC that is based on Walsh-functions). As with other modes, Olivia has several variants, each having a different bandwidth (from 500Hz to 2kHz) and different number of tones. Olivia can be very slow (on the order of 2-3 characters per second). This mode can combine 4-256 tones (2n), with 250, 500, 1000, or 2000 Hz bandwidth. The prevailing standard setting is 32 tones and 1000 Hz with 31.25 baud. This allows ±125 Hz of mis-tuning. Standard frequencies are 7038.5, 14104.5, 14105.5, 14106.5, 14107.5, 14108.5 (calling frequency), 18102.5, 18103.5, 18104.5, 21129.5 kHz (for 1000 Hz AF; USB).
CONTESTIA was derived from OLIVIA by Nick Fedoseev (UT2UZ). It has yet to gain popularity...
NOTES: Frequency-shift keying (FSK) shifts between two known states. Phase-shift keying (PSK) changes PHASE of a signal against some reference. FSK is sent by either shifting a carrier frequency (F1B) or modulating SSB with two shifting audio tones (AFSK). When sending PSK, a complex audio waveform is transmitted by SSB. Tracking is much more critical for PSK, thus requiring more frequency stability.
DSP (Digital Signal Processing) techniques use high speed processing to convert audio into digital coding, so that a program can manipulate the coded audio in ways not possible with traditional hardware filters. The 16 and 32 bit sound cards found in modern PCs provide this capability.
FUZZY MODES are those modes that allow the human eye/ear/brain to be used to its maximum potential. In order to do this, a number of rules are required, to ensure that any electronics or logic circuitry is not allowed to make decisions which may be less inspired than human decisions. Examples of potentially Fuzzy modes are Morse Code, HFFAX, SSTV and Hellschreiber. The rules are:
- The transmissions must be uncoded - the signal is sent as a real-time language.
- The receiver must not decide when data is present - untouched by any prior decisions.
- The receiver must not decide what data is present - must be presented as received.
External links last checked: October 2015
©2004-2016 F. Dörenberg, unless stated otherwise. All rights reserved worldwide. No part of this publication may be used without permission from the author.